The bio-cultural framework is a technique to know the disease and it works like a lens. Illness and disease are increasing day by day and the Bio-cultural framework helps the scientist to find the relationship between the human bodies with social life. This bio-cultural framework is adopted to know the habits and living style of the specific community to better understand the cause of illness and disease. Earth in which we all live face serious biological issues due to globalization (Johns, 2004). The natural resources are already being consumed too much including Global warming, densely populated regions in global regions.
The people belonging to indigenous discipline are trying their best to put the balance in the ecological environment and also giving awareness on Bio-Cultural model which enable food system to be preserved. The local economies, land management have been given an insight view to better explain the Bio-cultural framework. There should be a spiritual and psychic relationship with the environment which these people are showing and trying their best to promote relations with nature (Daniel, 2012). These are the important guidelines needed to live a healthy and better lifestyle.
Indigenous food systems depend on many factors comprising of climate, the fertility of the land, weather, the quality of land of that specific region. The crop growth is dependent on the above factors and also on the vegetation, landforms, rivers, and water-shedding systems, and is one of the essential parts in the cultivation of crops (Barthel, 2013). The food habit is also dependent on these factors of indigenous people and also on the Bio-cultural model. Air, land, cultural and traditional plants, water, and soil are the indigenous food systems. Some previous researches are depicting the food habits and the nativity, for example, the bio-cultural framework may get wrong as the relation of the human with the social life changes with time. The development of human beings leads towards the changes in the social system and ultimately the food habits also change in the presence of innovative technology that gave new tastes to the community (Barthel, 2013).
Human needs the energy to do all types of work. The food habits of a person correspond to the amount of energy required for the human body. The indigenous part of the food system is attached and having a healthy body and mind is to transfer this sort of energy from one place to another. These indigenous foods are cultivated, preserved, harvested, traded, and prepared to different countries by the people. Every region has its demand for food and exhibits different food habits resulting to change the indigenous foods and its habits (Dove, 2006).
There was a strict line in which the ethnic foods were encircled but now that boundary is no more there for the ethnic foods and it is elevated that are part of other regions, still, they have the same method of cultivation and harvesting i.e. same food system. Ethnicity leads to the continuous food habits of individuals in some regions of the world. There are health issues that the communities are facing form centuries back when there was not even a simple cure of health issues as they did not know and the sources were also not known. The health issues in the ecological system and the emergence of these issues in new communities was also because of the ethnicity and endogenous food habits. The indigenous individuals and the foods habits are not as simple as they also require nutrition from that specific food. There is also a stress to keep the nutritional values balanced by taking these foods. There is an extraordinary decrease in the strength of native individuals. To support the well-being condition, indigenous individuals are concentrating on developing naturally grown foods. It is more advantageous than other food systems all over the world (Weaver, 1999).
The diseases were less in the past thousand years because food comprises of natural ingredients and resources. There was less disease and few people were found sick because these people travel a lot and their energy is constantly being transferred from one place to another. These issues were easily cured and people were less prone to diseases. In the modern world, every food item does not have 100 percent natural things, is made through synthetic and artificial processes which result in bad health and more diseases. (Weaver, 1999)
The people used wood for cooking, for warming and for building houses. The indigenous people focus more on the better use of the resources and the extraction of fuelwood is their biggest concern. Science helped us in every manner because it explored different sources of fuel which can be used in the replacement of wood but the rural people still use wood for cooking and other purposes (Daniel, 2012). The fuelwood can be used in the future as stated by indigenous people.
Aboriginal people used to develop woodlots and efficiently did the fuel harvesting to protect the environment’s ecological system because of the regeneration of plants and trees by cutting the different parts of trees and plants to obtain firewood. The plantation and harvest time also affect the regeneration of the plants and trees because of the time gaps between harvesting and plantation. When biology is concerned it requires careful methods and techniques because it can ruin the whole system (Pimbert, 2006). An indigenous bio-social approach is being produced by the IPCCA keeping in mind the end goals to lead essential appraisals of climatic change and related dangers for people. The indigenous people are well aware of the fact of the negative influence of doing fuel harvesting and usage of the wood of fuels properly, and not only indigenous people should think about it but the government needs to do also.
There is a conflict by some researches and they thought that the motive of indigenous people is to adopt climate change and by doing so the bio-cultural framework will play an important role. The basic point behind the bio-cultural framework is to estimate risks associated with climate change for aboriginal people. The approach should be adopted in such a way that will connect the whole world through biophysical, socio-cultural, and spiritual elements to be by the people (Salick, 2007).
The health of indigenous people is retained effectively using different approaches and reduce the people suffering from various diseases. Diabetes and Cardiac diseases were found previously in abundance in the individuals who were constantly using the indigenous food and they were not known the risks related to their health with those specific kinds of foods. The majority of neither health problems are because of nor the presence of the right amount of diet. The fruits and vegetables are the natural resources and the human body needs it for nourishment and fulfillment. A report conducted in Australia showed that more than fifteen percent of middle to young age does not take fruits and vegetables and these were the reasons that became the cause of their sickness and illness (Young, 2012).
The critical analysis pinpoints that the bio-cultural framework constitutes a major portion of the indigenous food systems. Planet Earth is going up against outrageous natural crises accordingly of Globalization, Global Warming, and overconsumption of ordinary resources, insurrection, and over people in overall society. Indigenous people far and wide are endeavoring to shield the organic change of nature and guide us by giving information on the Bio-social model which secures the sustenance structure There should be adopted food sovereignty movements to get benefit to the system of indigenous food systems and will further aid in maintaining the health of different people. The local food system is not bad rather they are good and indigenous people are by the quality of the local foods.
Barthel, S. C. (2013). Bio-cultural refugia—safeguarding the diversity of practices for food security and biodiversity. Global environmental change, 23(5), 1142-1152.
Daniel, T. C. (2012). Contributions of cultural services to the ecosystem services agenda. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109(23), 8812-8819.
Dove, M. R. (2006). Indigenous people and environmental politics. Annu. Rev. Anthropol., 35, 191-208.
Johns, T. &. (2004). Biocultural diversity in the sustainability of developing-country food systems… Food and nutrition bulletin, 25(2), 143-155…
Pimbert, M. (2006). Transforming knowledge and ways of knowing for food sovereignty: Died.
Salick, J. &. (2007). Indigenous peoples and climate change… Oxford: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research.
Weaver, H. N. (1999). Indigenous people and the social work profession: Defining culturally competent services. Social Work, 44(3), 217-225.
Young, A. G. (2012). A biocultural framework for examining maternal cravings and aversions among pastoral women in East Africa. Ecology of food and nutrition, 51(5), 444-462.
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