Annotated Bibliography Format and Sample

Reference 1 #

Sbarra, D. A., Emery, R. E., Beam, C. R., & Ocker, B. L. (2014). Marital Dissolution and Major Depression in Midlife: A Propensity Score Analysis. Clinical Psychology Science, 2(3), 249-157. DOI: 10.1177/2167702613498727

The study has explored the impact of marital dissolution on the mental health of adults. The study has not only explored the simple relationship between marriage dissolution and depression. The study has explored the directionality of the relationship as well as the mediating factors which affect the dissolution of the depression in the relationship. The study finds the causes of depression while exploring the mediating factors.

The study took a sample of 7,108 participants (3,395 men and 3,713 women) the average age of the participants was 46.40 years (with the standard deviation of 13). The data was collected through the telephonic interviews. The sampling technique was random sampling gathered through the digital dialing system.

The demographics and information are taken from them include; age, education, gender, total household income, the length of the marriage. The participants were those who were continually married.

The study finds the propensity scores which are matched with the algorithm and identify the minor sets of the main sample are the different times of period in their lives. They all were equivalent in the risk of getting divorced. They are the participants who have experienced the separation in the two different waves of the life.

It has found that social causation and social selection plays the significant role in major depression in divorced and separate both couples.

Reference 2 #

Sharma, B. (2011). Mental and Emotional Impact of Divorce on Women. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 37(1), 125-131.

The study has examined the impact of divorce on the mental health of the divorced women as they get older. And how they experience mental health problems with the passage of time in the different phases of life. Studies have found that the relationship between depression and divorce has the mediation impact of the self-esteem of the females which is associated with marital status.

The sample included the 50 women who were divorced their age ranges between the 20 to 30 years. Another set of women consists of 50 women ranges between the 30 to 40 years.

The emotional health of the females was seen in two different times. First, it was checked after one month of the diverse, and secondly, it was seen after the one year of the divorce from the same participants. The study used the 8 SQ (eight states questionnaire).

The impact was found to have on the emotional health of the females, other than this the mental health of the females was examined through the Mental Health Inventory. Other than these two inventories a semi-structured interview was also conducted for the females.

The study has found that time plays the healing role in the mental and emotional health of the females. Secondly, females with a younger age experience less mental and emotional stability as compared to the females with the older age range.

Reference 3 #

Stack, S., & Scourfield, J. (2015). The recency of Divorce, Depression, and Suicide Risk. Journal of Family Issues, 36(6), 695–715. DOI:10.1177/0192513X13494824

The study has found the relationship between marital status and suicidal tendencies. The study aims to find the causes of suicides in American adults. There were three different variables that were studied about the suicides. The limitations are marked in the study very significantly. The two limitations which have mentioned in the study have two different aspects that impede the reasoning.

The first limitation is that the time duration of the divorce and suicide is unknown so it cannot be determined how long it takes to get to the stage of committing suicide.

The second limitation is the association of the diverse and data was collected through the secondary means about the people who have committed suicide so it cannot be determined that the reason for the suicide is the divorce, other psychiatric predictors, or the sociological risk or other considerable protective factors.

Secondary data analysis has found that if controlling the other factors in the data by making the logistic regression analysis and attribute the results to the only reason for divorce.  It can be determined that the recent trends in suicide have been increased due to the divorce the number is 1.6 times increased.

Moreover, the timing of the divorce impacts the suicide independent of the depression. The study can be related to the prospect studies in a way that suicidal thoughts have a direct relation with depression. So, the prevalence of suicidal thoughts or attempting suicide can be linked with the tendency or having the symptoms of depression among the divorced population.

Reference 4 #

Webb, A. P., Ellison, C. G., McFarland, M. J., Lee, J. W., Morton, K., & Walters, J. (2010). Divorce, Religious Coping, and Depressive Symptoms in a Conservative Protestant Religious Group. Family Relations, 59(5), 544-557.

The study aims to measure the depressive symptoms in females. The background of the study depicts that the there are several social factors that are associated with marital life.

And depression is the risk factor in the case of divorce. With this background, the study aims to see the impact of religion on marital life overall, how religious factors plays a vital role in marital stability and quality.

The study has not considered the impact of religious factors on the coping and problem solving following the divorce. Although religious coping styles have studied while building the fragment’s model. In this context, the dependent variable was depressive symptoms, and the independent variable was divorce.

The population of a study was a health study cohort & biopsychosocial religion data was collected through random sampling. The sample size was 96,000 participants, which were taken in the different proportions of blacks and white.

The first phase included the 50 –pages survey regarding the health. Later after three to five years, the sample size of 20,000 participants filled the 20 pages survey. That survey includes the measure of lifetime stressors, physical and mental health outcomes, and religious beliefs and activities of the participants.

This way the found the relationship between the different variables as well as the cohort effect on the similar participants. Studies have concluded that different types of religious activities, beliefs, and overall coping styles have the negative strong relationship with depression or depressive symptoms. It also plays a significant role in the outcomes of the divorces.

Reference 5 #

Hiyoshi, A., Fall, K., Netuveli, G., & Montgomery, S. (2015). Remarriage after divorce and depression risk. Social Science & Medicine, 141, 109-114.

The study has explored the relationship between marriage and depression at the core. Further, it sees the impact of marriage on the males and the level of depression among that. Moreover how the marriage, divorce, and remarriage impact the males and their level of depression.

In this context, the main objective of the study is to explore or examine the status of marriage and depression. As it has found through several studies that marriage lessens the depression. But the study further explore that how remarriage is associated with depression and remaining the divorced in comparison lessen the depression.

The sample includes men born between 1952 & 1956. They get divorced in 1958.  The number of participants was n= 72,246. They all were treated with the medication for depression from 2005 to 2009.

Another cohort was taken of men who got divorced and remained divorce or the ones who are married between the era of 1986 & 2004. The study used different depression hazards analysis which was measured through Cox proportional hazards analysis.

The results of the study have shown the different impacts of marriage, divorce, remarriage and depression. Depression associated with the staying divorced found to have less in the early ages as compared to the later ages of the divorce.

Other than this it has found that there is a high tendency of depression among the men who remarried again and there is not any association between the second marriage and lessening the depression among men as in first marriage.

Analysis has made in comparison to those who stayed divorced and did not get married again and the pharmaceutical treatment of the depression.

Reference 6 #

Sakyi, K. S., Melchior, M., Chollet, A., & Surkan, P. J. (2012). The combined effects of parental divorce and parental history of depression on cannabis use in young adults in France. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 126, 195–199. Retrieved from

The study aims to explore the joint impact of the several social risk factors on the use of substance-related behavior among the children.

How the history of parents with depression and their separation and divorce impact the children. The use of cannabis has not been studied before therefore the current study aims to explore the impact of depression and divorce on the young adult’s behavior of use of cannabis.

The methodology has described that study aimed to explore the effects of parental divorce and the history of depression on the use of cannabis of the students. According to this objective of the study the sample of young adults from France was taken to explore the impact.

The criteria for the selection of the sample was the use of cannabis for at least once in the last 12 months. Parental divorce happened before 2009. They have a history of depression between the years of 1989 to 2009. These criteria were taken and considered for the sample.

The analysis of the data was made through the regression analysis. Multiple logistic regression depicts the results of different factors of socio-economic and demographic variables associated with the parents and adults.

The results of the study have depicted that around one-fourth of adults among the total population use cannabis at least once in the last 12 months. 15 percent of the students use cannabis has had the parents with divorce.

The young adults who experience both the parental history of depression and divorce are two times more prone to use cannabis.

Reference 7 #

Kim, J. Y., Oh, D. J., Yoon, T. Y., Choi, J. M., & Choe, B. K. (2007). The impacts of obesity on psychological well-being: a cross-sectional study about depressive mood and quality of life. J Prev Med Public Health40(2), 191-195.

The current study aims to explore the impact of depression on the other physical and psychological health problems. The study focuses on the people who visit the clinics for the problem of obesity.

How obesity is related to other issues like depression and other psychological pathologies.  The other variable includes the different levels of depression, eating habits and eating pathologies, the overall quality of life, and body-related perceptions and dissatisfaction.

The method of the study was a cross-sectional design. The sample size was 534 females. These females were targeted through the clinics. The study was conducted in Seoul, Korea.  All the females who were visiting the clinics for the sake of the obesity problems were required to fill the forms which include the information regarding other variables.

The patients were divided into two groups. One group was of patients with a BMI of greater than 25 and another was of less than 25. Further, the third group includes the healthy people group which consists of 398 people.

The study found that the careful diagnosis of the people with obesity is important as they may have the depression tendencies. They have the eating disorder tendencies as well as the lower level of quality of life.

The patients who have the obesity level may have other psychological problems as well which may be the significant reason of obesity as compare to the people who are not obese. This concludes the impact of unhealthy tendencies of the depression on obesity.


Motataianu, I. R. (2015). The Relation between Anger and Emotional Synchronization in Children from Divorced Families. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences203, 158-162.

Th article is based on the theoretical framework. The importance of the affects in the life of children has explored. The emotional well being and its relation to the other variables like anger. Anger further related with the several other factors. The study has explored the importance of affect in the life of children. As the first and foremost important source of the affect and emotions id the family, so its relation to the emotional well-being has explored.

The study has explored the theoretical framework and proposed the relationship between the affection and emotional well-being. The relationship between emotional well and anger has also explored through the different theoretical works. The importance of the interpaersonal relationship, the anger management, and failure in the academic performance is related to the rejection from the families.

The survey has explored the child and adults relationship management. The families with the history of divorce or the children from the divorced families have depicted the poor relationship or attachment with their parents or with their caregivers. In addition to that, they were observed to experience grief as well. The poor attachment and negligence cause these emotions among the children.

On the other hand, it is also found that parents who deal with the children’s affection needs in a better manner their children tend to overcome the trauma as well as the grief of the divorce. In this context, it has proposed that parent-centered action approach is being recommended.


Yip, P. S., Yousuf, S., Chan, C. H., Yung, T., & Wu, K. C. C. (2015). The roles of culture and gender in the relationship between divorce and suicide risk: a meta-analysis. Social Science & Medicine128, 87-94.

The study aims to explore the impact and role of the culture and its relation to the gender between the divorce and risk of suicide. As the study has explored the background of the topic and previous studies. It has found that people with the divorce are at the high risk of committing the suicide. Other than some exceptions. Study based on this background has aimed to explore the coefficient of aggravation. The ratio of the suicides made by the people who got divorced as compare to the people without divorce or due to any other reason.

The reason for suicide about the divorce and the impact of socio-cultural factors and gender differences which contribute or mediate between the relationship of divorce and suicide. The study was conducted through the electronic databases in a systematic manner. The data was collected through the databases of recorded suicides. The period was from the January of 200 to December of 2013.

The results of the study have depicted that overall, as data was taken from the different countries and areas, people with the divorce has the higher rate of suicide, and they are the risk of suicide, as compare to the people without the divorce or people who commit the suicide due to any other reason. In addition to that, it has also explored that the cultural also plays an important and mediating role in the relationship between divorce and suicide. Gender rolls also vary from one cultural index to another.

Dave, D., Mittal, S., Tiwari, D., Parmar, M. C., Gedan, S., & Patel, V. (2014). Study of anxiety and depression in caregivers of intellectually disabled children. Hindu81, 81.

Intellectual disability is found to have a comparatively more permanent condition which remained throughout the life of the children as well as the life of the parents. The study aims to explore the negative impact of the caregiver on the management and treatment of the mentally disabled children. Study finds the prevalence and the influence of different socio-economic and social demographic variables on the care of the children and its relationship with the anxiety and depression among the people or caregivers of the disabled children.

The study uses the Zung’s anxiety and depression scale. The scale was self-reported anxiety and depression. The procedure includes approaching the parents of the children who visits the clinics for the children with the mental disabilities. As the objective was to find the prevalence of the people with the anxiety and depression as well as the impact on the caregiving to the children, the children’s data was also collected to see the impact.

The results of the study found that 57 % of the parent who has the children with the mental disability has anxiety, and 63 % has depression. The social impacts on this have found to be related to the type of the family; their socio-economic status is found to have the correlation with the scores of anxiety and depression. Other than this there was variation in the variables like gender, religion, education of the parents and their current marital status was found not to have the relationship with the high anxiety scores and caregiving responsibilities.

Bronselaer, J. L. J., De Koker, B. S. M., & Van Peer, C. M. A. (2008). The impact of divorce on the health status of ex-partners. Arch Public Health66, 168-86.

The impact of the divorce has been explored in the several areas. It does impact all walks of life. The current study aims to explore the impact of the divorce on the physical as well as on the physical as well as on the psychological health of the individuals. Especially, the ex- partners. The data for the study was collected from the website ‘web of science.’ The data focuses on the Anglo-Saxon & the Dutch literature.

The results of the study have found that divorce has the negative impact on the general health of the people. In specific it poses great negative impact on the general health of the people or the ex-partner. It has also found that there are several other aspects of the psychological health like anxiety, depression, and behavioral and mood-related problems are associated with the divorce. It has also explored that people with divorce have low life expectancy as compare to the people who remained married.

It was found that people with the divorce status tend to use more formal health care services as compare to the people without this status. It again refers to the nature and amount of health issues people are facing in regard. It also refers to the issues of the people which shows the relationship between life stressors, psychological well-being and its relation to the physical health. It is also very crucial to find the relationship between all these factors.


Anastopoulos, A. D., Sommer, J. L., & Schatz, N. K. (2009). ADHD and family functioning. Current Attention Disorders Reports1(4), 167-170.

It has been examined that there are many family disorders that are related to the depression in the article. It has been mentioned that the ADHD is the type of the problem that is not the one of the best in the country. It has been found that there is a harmful effect of the ADHD on the disorders of the child and the ultimate thing is the depression that is not needed to be taken care at any point.

It has been found that many of the families are into these type of problems and it consists of the disorders on a rare basis as well. It has been determined that in this article different families have been taken in the consideration so that the better responses could be captured. It has been noted that the reality based depression is due to the activities that are not normal in the family structure.

It has been noted in the article that the height depression mainly depends upon the tasks that are related to the activities that are not normal. It has been examined that the imperial studies have been conducted in this case and one of the important parts is to consider the final evaluation. Therefore the depression is taken in this part so that the best policies could be made overall. It has been determined that the future research and the practices have been noticed in the detail that how disorders could be minimized overall so that the best practices could be entertained overall.

Esmaeili, N. S., & Yacoob, S. N. (2012). Correlates of Self-esteem among adolescents of divorced Families. Archives des Sciences65(8).

It has been examined that the main aim of the study is to look at the differences and the correlation in between the divorced families and the self-esteem among the adolescents of that particular infected families. Therefore the study has been conducted in this case so that the nature of the reasons could be determined and the clear picture could be seen among the correlational study.

For this reason, the 800 participants have been taken in the considerations, and it has been tested upon the adolescents that what is the effect on them due to the divorce in between their parents. It has been noted that most of the respondents that took part in this study were from 15 to 18 years of age so that the details could be known. It has been seen that there are some of the negative results of the divorce on the respondents as the stress, self-esteem and the conflict arises most of the time.

It has been examined after the resting of the results that there is low self-esteem present in the people who are related to divorced families. It has been noted that there is no warmth in between the relations and it could be determined that the better and the positive relationships could be maintained if there are no divorced relationships in the families. Therefore the study explains that the strongest predator that could be stated here is the realities that are needed to be taken care and the divorce families do have the depression and low results.

Neurobehavioral, H. I. V. (2011). Depression, alcohol abuse, and disclosure of HIV serostatus among rural HIV-positive individuals in western Uganda. Religion50(14), 5-74.

It has been examined that there are the couple of facts that are needed to be known. The depression, alcohol usage, and the other factors are related to the HIV positive direction overall. It has been noted that due to the viral infections the alcohol usage and the distress are increasing day by day and that is the main reason it is needed to be checked so that the actual reality could be noticed overall.

It has been noticed that for this reason 244 HIV people are taken into the account, and one of the best things that are needed to be measured is that the depression, alcohol usage, and the social networks are taken into the consideration as well. Therefore it is needed to be known that which are the main factors that are included in the realities as are the cause of the stress, depression and alcohol usage.

As the result it have been examined that almost 86% of the tested population have the positive results and they states that there are the problems with the alcohol usage, stress and the depression that is involved in the people., the main reason is they are infected with the HIV infections, and this shows there is a positive impact on the persons due to the disease. Hence it states that there is a positive relationship in between stress, alcohol usage, and the disorders in between the community. However, the HIV needed to be reduced in the country if the stress and the use of alcohol are needed to be reduced from the country as the study states the positive relationship in between them.

Hashmi, H. A., Khurshid, M., & Hassan, I. (2007). Marital adjustment, stress, and depression among working and non-working married women. Internet Journal of Medical Update2(1), 19-26.

The study aimed to explore the factors which contribute to the depression and related to the marital adjustment.  It explores the relations between the three variables; marital adjustment, stress, and depression. The importance of emotional and psychological well-being associated with the marital life is the basic objective of the study to explore. In addition to that this leads to the mall practice of childbearing as well.

The study took the sample of 150 females including working & not- working. The sample includes all married females. The proportion of working women and housewives was equal as 75 females were housewives and another 75 were working women. Their age was between 18 years to 50 years. Education of all the females was graduation or above. The sample was taken from the all socio-economic classes.

Dyadic Adjustment Scale was used to measure the marital adjustment of the sample. Fro depression, Beck Depression Inventory was used. Stress was also measured through the self-reported measure of stress. Results of the study depicted that there is the high and significant relationship between all their variables. Marital adjustment leads to the depression and stress. It has also found that married females who are working women tend to face comparative more problems than housewives. It has also found that educated and working women tend to cope with the stressors better than the educated nonworking married females.

Animasahun, R. A. (2014). Marital conflict, divorce, and single parenthood as predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior in Ibadan. British Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science4(5), 592-602.

Parental conflicts separation and divorce are associated with the several problems among the children. This study aims to explore the impact of divorced and single parenting with the anti-social behavior of the children. It has observed that the antisocial behavior among the Nigerian secondary school children is increasing day by day. The association has been expected to be the marital conflicts, divorce and antisocial behavior of the children.

The sample of the study consisted of three hundred adolescents. The sample was selected through random sampling technique. There were three variables which were studied or investigated. Crime Behavior Factor Battery used to measure the variable of antisocial behavior among the students. The variable of the marital status of the parents was taken from the records of the students available in the school. These variables were measured through the regression analysis.

The results of the study have revealed that marital conflicts among the parents, divorce of the parents and children living with the single parents has the positive and significant relationship between the single parenthood and antisocial behavior among the adults. It was found that around 78 percent of student’s anti-social behavior was due to the single parenthood, divorced parents or due to the family conflicts. It was recommended that there should be intervention programs for the students.

Ganesh, M. P., & Magdalin, S. (2007). Perceived problems and academic stress in children of disrupted and non-disrupted families. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology33(1), 53-59.

The current study aims to explore the comparative analysis of the children between those with disruptive and nondestructive families. In other words, hoe the family disruption plays the significant role in the children’s perception of the problem and their ability to deal with the problem as well. The objective of the study was to explore the facts regarding the difference prevail in the disruptive and non-disrupted families.

The method of the study consists of taking the sample of 80 boys in total. The total sample consisted of two equal sets one belongs to the disruptive families, and another belongs to the nondestructive families. Other demographic variables tend to be same. Tools used to measure the variables include academic stress measure and problem checklist. These two tools measure the self-reported perception of the problem and their academic stress they report to have. These measures were analyzed through the regression analysis, which shows the predictive strength of the relationship between the variables.

The results of the study showed that there was the significant difference between the two group of adults. It was found that the adults who belong to the disrupted families tend to score more on the perception of the problem, low in the physical development and health, social- psychological relationships and adjustment in the school as well. This finding refers to the problem that the disruptive families give birth to the disruptive personalities.

Koball, H. L., Moiduddin, E., Henderson, J., Goesling, B., & Besculides, M. (2010). What do we know about the link between marriage and health?. Journal of Family Issues.

The study conducted among the African Americans has explored the relationship between the marriage and health. In contrary to this it can be said that the benefits associated with the marital life are the ones which unmarried people are deprived or prone to the contrary health risk factors. It has hypothesized in the study that married people tend to enjoy the more health benefits as compare to the people who are not married. Similarly, it has also found that children who are raised in the stable families tend to enjoy the more health benefits as compare to the children belong to the broken families or has the single parent.

It has also found that married parents who are having stable families tend to have the children with the stable and long life expectancy rate as compare to the children their parents are not married, and they do not belong to the families which consist of the single parent or are divorced and living separately. The relationship between the health and marriage is found to have deep and has the several ways to link.

The link between the marriage and health may be developed in a way that healthy people tend to get married more as compare to the people who are unhealthy. Similarly, healthy people tend to sustain the relation and less likely to get divorced as compare to the people who are unhealthy. But in most of the researches, it has found that marriage itself tend to improve the health of people. The relationship found to be significant among the whites, but studies need to explore the relation among the blacks.

Clavarino, A., Hayatbakhsh, M. R., Williams, G. M., Bor, W., O’Callaghan, M., & Najman, J. M. (2011). Depression following marital problems: different impacts on mothers and their children? A 21-year prospective study. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology46(9), 833-841.

The purpose of the study was to explore the reasons of marital conflicts and to increase divorce rate of the families and the basic reasons of these. It has found that there is the association between the marital problems and the mental health of the partners as well as it impacts the mental health of the children as well. The changes happened in the family after the divorce or separation pose the negative impact on the parents and children’s mental health.

It has found that people in the troubled relationship may find it releasing to leave the relationship, but the children of the parents of divorced or separated may fall into the mental health problems for rest of their lives the study focuses on the impact of the divorce on the children of the divorce families. It has found that there is a negative impact on the mental health of the children age 21. They are measured on the scale of depression. As the sample of the study includes the 3512 mothers and 3334 children. Both were measured on the scale of depression to provide the scores on the depression scale.

Results of the study have shown that there is a relationship between poor quality marital relationship and the children at the age of 14 years. It has concluded that the marital transition among the females showed that mother scoreless in the depression who has been in the problematic relationship but children of such families are more prone to the depression as compare to the mothers.


Fear, J. M., Champion, J. E., Reeslund, K. L., Forehand, R., Colletti, C., Roberts, L., & Compas, B. E. (2009). Parental depression and interparental conflict: Children and adolescents’ self-blame and coping responses. Journal of Family Psychology23(5), 762.

Depression has found to be associated with the poor marital relationship. That is the reason that the poor relationships are caused due to the poor mental health. The current study focus on the role of the children and adult’s perception of their self’s blaming and especially the ones related to their interpersonal conflicts. Moreover the coping behavior and attitude of the children regarding the perception of parent’s problems.

The way they are concerned with the family issues and how they are coping with these problems is the major problem to be discussed. The study took the sample of 108 youth their age was between 9 years to the 15 years. They all have the parents with the history of depression. It was observed that the difference between the levels of interpersonal conflict and a higher level of internalizing the problem.

It has found that the problem of internalizing the problems and associating between the depression and coping strategies makes the children and parents more susceptible to broken family as well as it results in the self-blaming, secondary coping strategies of the conflict and internalizing and externalizing the problem these leads to the poor consequences in the case of children as well as in the case of parents as well.

Singh, A. L., D’onofrio, B. M., Slutske, W. S., Turkheimer, E., Emery, R. E., Harden, K. P., … & Martin, N. G. (2011). Parental depression and offspring psychopathology: a Children of Twins Study. Psychological Medicine41(07), 1385-1395.

The study has the background that association between the parental depression and offspring have shown the effective and disruptive disorders in the family. Some genetic researchers have explored the intergenerational associations between these. On this basis, the study aims to explore the relationship between the parental depression and depression in their off springs.

For achievement of this objective, the study chooses the method of semi-structured interview of the twins. The sample size was of 1296. The clinical interviews were conducted to explore the depression by DSM-III-R the twins register the spouse and their off springs in the study. The children of twins were used to explore the real reason of the depression tendencies in the offspring’s. It was explored that weather the depression was due to the genetic tendencies or due to the environmental confounding.

The results of the study concluded that there is the difference in the underlying associations depends upon the outcomes of the depression. It was found that the combination of the factors determine the relationship the parental role as well as along with the causal role of the parents is there in the case of depression rather where there are not any environmental factors, there is very less likely to find depression among the children.

Bastaits, K., Ponnet, K., & Mortelmans, D. (2012). Parenting of divorced fathers and the association with children’s self-esteem. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1-14.

It has suggested that the researchers found the parental support and control improve the children’s mental and physical health and wellbeing. Most of the studies have explored the impact of the parenting of the married parents, but the current study is focusing f the single parenting. It has seen that after the divorce most of the mothers tend to rear the children, but the current study tend to focus on the other aspect of the picture and considering the exceptions in this.

It has explored that how the fathers play a role in parenting their children’s wellbeing. The comparison has been made between the father and mother’s single parenting practices and how it plays the vital role in the wellbeing of the children. The data was taken from the 587 the age of the children was 10 to 18 years. The results of the study suggest that fathers equally contribute to enhancing the children’s self-esteem.

The conclusion suggests that after the divorce considering the single parenting practices, they can enhance the self-esteem of the children. Their practice includes all those essential elements which are required for the parenting practices part of enhancing the self-esteem of the children. But this study recommends that in the future the capacity of the development of the self-esteem among the children should study about the parenting practices of the mother after the divorce.

Fabricius, W. V., & Luecken, L. J. (2007). Postdivorce living arrangements, parent conflict, and long-term physical health correlate for children of divorce. Journal of family psychology21(2), 195.

The study focuses on the biopsychosocial model to find the distress among the children. Three factors were considered while exploring the relationship and impact of the factors of bio, psycho and social. First is the exposure of family conflicts among the parents and exposure of children to these conflicts. Second is the status of divorce of parents, the age of the children when they experience the exposure of parental conflicts up to five years and time they spend with their father.

The study took the sample of 266 children and their parents they explore all the variables of interest and run the regression analysis to measure the predictability of the variables. Findings of the study support the model by finding that the more time spent with their father, leads the children to develop the good relations with their father. The more they expose to the parental conflicts the more they are prone to the stress.

Other than these findings it has also found that regardless of the conflicts fathers who spend a good time with their father has good parenting. It has found that children who are exposed to the parental conflicts tend to experience the stress. Further, the stressed children are more prone to the health issues as compare to the children without stress. In this manner the parenting conflicts leads to the poor mental and physical health of the children.

Brook, C. A., & Schmidt, L. A. (2008). Social anxiety disorder: a review of environmental risk factors. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment4(1A), 123.

It has been examining that the article is consistent with the Social anxiety disorder: a review of environmental risk factors and this is one the main problem that has been introduced in the society. It has been examined that the social anxiety is one of the most common problems in the society and that is the reason there is stress caused. Moreover, it has been seen that the divorce is accumulated and the children’s does have the bad effect on the life. Therefore the study is being conducted to find the relationship.

It has been examined that there is 7-13 percent of the population which are living under stress and they are not considered be normal at all. It has been reviewed that SAD is one of the most common diseases that have been noticed in this context. Moreover, the article states that the working environment and the social environment have the negative effect on the life of the normal person.

It has been examined that there are many of the different cultural that have been examined and the dimensions which are needed to be taken into consideration. It has been noted that the critique on the environmental factors are told in the detail that how they have effected in the terms and the logical flow. Moreover, it has been determined that the anxiety and the SAD is due to many different reasons and they are needed to be reviewed as well. Therefore the importance of the article can be predicted regarding SAD.

Murray, K., Davidson, G., & Schweitzer, R. (2008). Psychological wellbeing of refugees resettling in Australia: A literature review prepared for the Australian Psychological Society. Australian Psychological Society.

It has been examined that the literature review has been gathered in the context that after the divorce what does happen to the children’s. Do they are into the threat or that what are the main issues that they are facing throughout their life? It has been determined that there are a lot of different problems that are examined in the paper and it could be concluded that the best results are found here.

It could be stated that more than 250 articles have been read in this context so that the nature of the separation and the after effects could be known in the research. It has been examined that one of the main things to look here is that there is a negative effect of the separation that has been noticed and that is what created at the end of the paper. It has been noted that the strong vibes are associated with the parents and when they have destroyed the problems and the stress is incurred all over.

For this study mostly the studies have been taken in the context of Australia, and it has been stated that the 43% manages are not the successfully manages, and as a result, the divorce is filed after the one or two years. Therefore it has been stated that the best of the alternatives are said to be at the best price in this case. However, more than 50,000 children’s experience this kind of issues and the stress is in their mind, and the main cause for the stress is the divorce and the separation in many cases.

Hovens, J. G., Giltay, E. J., Spinhoven, P., van Hemert, A. M., & Penninx, B. W. (2015). The impact of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the onset and recurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders. J Clin Psychiatry76(7), 931-938.

It could be seen that the article Impact of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the onset and recurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders is one of the best in the context that the stress and the anxiety are described in detail. It has been examined that one of the best things is to make sure that the depressive orders are needed to be cured in a way that the childhood trauma could be reduced. Due to this, the main aspects are described in a way that the powerful research have been conducted.

It has been examined that the longitudinal study have been conducted in this case and it could be stated that 1167 respondents have been tested under this study so that the perfect and the generalizable results could be known in this case. Moreover, it has been stated that the respondents are in between the age of 18-65 respectively. It has been examined that the trauma effects have been noted in most of the children’s and the reason is the stress that has been brought up from the childhood.

It has been stated that almost 17% of the children’s does have the one child effect incident that is in the mind of the children’s and die to that the stress is there. Moreover, there are almost 19% participants who are affected by one or core incidents in this case, and they are affected as well in the different incidents. Therefore it could be concluded that all over the childhood the experiences are there at all levels.

Veinberg, I. (2015). Emotional Awareness–The Key to Dealing Appropriately with Children of Divorced Families in Schools. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences209, 514-518.

It has been examining that there are many of the articles related to the emotional awareness of the children’s and the stress, however in this article Emotional Awareness–The Key to Dealing Appropriately with Children of Divorced Families in Schools the details have been known in a way that the clarity is depicted. It has been seen that there are some of the incidents that are important in the human life and that is the main reason they could be predicted in such a common manner overall.

It could be stated that the overall performance of the students is depicted due to the stress and the social unawareness of the key terms and that is what not meant to be done at this age., Therefore it is said to be taken in the consideration that how and what is to be done. It could be stated that the quantitative findings have been analyzed in this manner so that the results could predict the relationship and the one of the main cause of the problem could be stated in a well-explained manner.

It could be seen that the teacher’s perception is not one of the most important things as the children’s does have the different anxiety in between them. It has been noticed that the teachers do have the strong role in this context so that the perception could be seen. It is seen that the programmed programs have been predicted in the manner that the awareness of the children’s could be made and the best possible answers could be determined. Hence there are the positive results of the anxiety in between the children’s.

Ann Mooney, C. O. (2009). The impact of Family Breakdown on Children’s Well-Being. London: Thomas Coram Research Unit.

Within this report, authors have talked about the issue of family divorce, while revealing about its significant impact on the lives of children. In this regard, authors have claimed about the fact that changing demographic contexts such as religion, race, language, and other aspects of demography have increased the level of distress and anxiety among the married couples. Due to the increased ratio of parental distress, the process of divorce has also increased, and its significant impacts on the children are widespread as well.

Additionally, this report also shows that different factors contribute to the increased level of suffering as a result of which couples turned depressed over their married lives. For example, the idea of financial hardship significantly contributes to the family breakdown because of the constant stress offered by the tension of poverty conflict. This report also shows that the family breakdown as a result of miserable conditions of the life of married couples also has a significant impact on the personal and mental growth of children as well.

From this report, it becomes clearer that the constant dissatisfaction because of different living factors of life parents become depressed and, as a result of their depression, they are more likely to breakdown family as well. In this regard, two things become clearer that there is a direct relation between depression and divorce and second it impacts the lives of children, in different manners as well. Over the research done within this report, it would not be wrong to say that the whole content of this research report is useful for further studying the relationship of depression and divorce and its significant impact on the children as well. Therefore, this source is useful for research about the relationship between depression and divorce and its impact on children.


Fagan, P. F. (2012). The effects of divorce on children. Marriage & Religion Institute, 12, 1-48.

In this article, authors have claimed that some children are suffering from the sever process of divorce. In this regard, those who are directly or indirectly involved in the process of divorce encounter with its significant sever outcome. In other words, authors have claimed that the issue of divorce not only disturbs parents and their children, both physically and mentally but also has its significant influences on the society as well. However, within this article, authors have focused on the issue of divorce and its causes and the way through which divorce impacts the lives of children as well.

In the article, it is mentioned that depression is one of the significant causes behind the issue of divorce. In this regard, as a result of the sufferings of depression parents are more likely to live separately, while ignoring the fact that divorce will impact the lives of their children as well. The article shows that depression is linked with divorce due to which the nature of relationships between children and father, between children and mother, and between children and parents becomes miserable and have significant psychological, social, and personal impacts on the lives of children.

The article also shows that girls are more likely to have the emotional impact of divorce during their youth, especially those who lived with their fathers than those who survived with their mothers. Also, this article shows that divorce not only harms the lives of children, but also weakens the relationship between children and parents in the form of less emotional attachment and well-being with the parents. Therefore, this article is also significant for future research about the link between depression and divorce and its impact on children as well.


Lizardi, D. T. (2009). Parental divorce, parental depression, and gender differences in adult offspring suicide attempt. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 197(12), 899-904.

The issue of divorce has become one of the critical and controversial subject matter, in the modern world of the affair. The increased number of divorce has not only disturbs the lives of parents but also has significant impacts on the lives of children as well. Most of the time, it has been observed that the issue of divorce impacts children seriously and often leads to suicide attempts of children as well. In this concern, this article talks about the suicide attempt of children committed by both male and female children, as a result of their parental divorce. Also, the article shows that depressive symptoms cause the divorce between parents due to which they turned less likely to live together as a result of suppressed lifestyle.

The article, also shows that depression not only disturbs the lives of children, as it causes divorce but also makes the children depressed in their future lives. The article also shows that girls are more likely to commit suicide in their adulthood than the boys, as girls are emotionally weak than the boys, especially those who are living with their fathers. From this fact, it would not be wrong to say that the issue of divorce as a result of a depressed history of parents not only cause the children to suffer in life but also to end their lives, due to their developing depressed situations of life.

In short, the notion of depression significantly causes the divorce between parents as a result of which children suffer pain in their life. Those children with weak emotional strengths are more likely to have lifetime suicide attempt, especially in a case of girls. In reality, girls who live with their fathers after divorce are more likely to attempt suicides than the girls live with their mothers. In this concern, this article is also important for future investigation.

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