Question No 1: #
The rich countries are more centralized because of their strong economic roots and more organized because of an efficient piece of work. The government take a decision, and do work on it, and do more and more work to develop these functions to progress in society. The third type of administrative decentralization is devolution.
The government transfers the authority in the decision making of the finance and arrange the arrangement to the local government with the cooperative status. The government institute does more work for the government. To analysis the data in 1996, there are eighty-six countries target their set goals. The correct use of the actual political powers indicates the relationships between these concepts (H. Werlin).
The leader cannot impose the values. For the process of the centralization values, and power cannot be perused in the empty framework. There should develop strong relationships between the leaders and the followers for the developed countries. The administration of the public cannot run from political concepts. The political question ns deal with the concept of longs for the good life, rules come into action and work on the effective decision. It reveals the mysteries of development.
The political theory is used in democracy, democracy development, and make linkage in the centralization and the decentralization. It illustrates the theory of PE theory. There are several comparative cases are studied in China, India, Bangladesh, and Vietnam. Authoritative countries like China and Vietnam are more successful in economic development and raising the standard of living.
They are playing their roles in equal parts. The decentralization starts in the 1980s. It is all done the stagnant economics and inefficient work. The central bureaucracies led the researchers to consider decentralization to take it as a solution for the devolving countries. The political decentralization affects the mainline of the bribe-taking.
The empirical and theoretical studies develop the relationships between decentralization and corruption. The decentralization of power is a feasible instrument. It can be operated upon the effectiveness of the behavior of the bureaucrats. The relationship between taking a different degree of freedom taken into account. The decentralization counterparties corruption in the countries. The press plays the pre-condition of the decentralization program (H. Werlin).
The question raises about the democracy of the Democratic counterparts. Sometimes power tends to corruption. The comparison of authoritative Singapore and democratic Jamaica suggested political power. Liberal partisan democracy tends to lawless democracy and corruption. To control corruption is essential for their legitimacy and economic prosperity.
It is primary for function. The prices serve as knowledge surrogates to enable the people to the individual’s knowledge and sufficiently overlap, so the plans get coordinated. The decentralization controls the resources, but it is not sufficient for the economy. The researcher conflates decentralization with the other concepts.
The people are embedded with positive values. Such as democracy and market reforms. The core power of decentralization is the concepts, fiscal, administrative, and political. Transforming the power and resources to the national government is not the decentralization; the fiscal decentralization refers to how much the government puts the financial impact on the non-central government entities (H. Werlin).
Question no 2 #
Rich countries are more successful than poor countries because the developed countries make changes in their decision. The previous Experian sustained the levels of the high growth that propel take them to the degree of the rich. The rich countries take benefits from past experiences. If they committed the mistakes, they learn from it.
For further implementation, the rich countries use their past experiences. They are not strict with one kind of theory. Since the late 1980s, economics has done extensive works on the determinants of economic growth. The increasing growth rate of poor countries is a primary global policy goal. The national government bisected by the different forms of the government.
At eth end of the world war. The German’s reunifications in 1991 and the two Korean. The government allowed private property free and made it compare with the counterpart government. Each government-produced decades of stagnation and poverty. Some people and the government face some situations. They should not be stagnant and cannot split them up.
The economists know there is some level of government intervention in a great way. It stifles the economic growth under the economics under it do poorly (H. H. Werlin, Poor nations, rich nations: A theory of governance).
The differences between the lower and the upper-class country are not to be measured. The culture of every country is different; the results are not straight forward. There are some factors, not countable such as private property rights and the lack of corruption. It is called the rule of law. It is simply correlated with high income.
It is difficult to correlate with other countries. Many economists must know the economics of the growth of these factors, private property rights, and tackle with less corruption. In this way, they correlated with high income. The economics must need to know the causes of growth. Some countries measure on the unit of analysis. China has a much larger population than Uganda. Some population-weighted the distribution worldwide with individual income.
Many of the individuals make changes and transform their culture whereas they are living. The change is culture the dynamic process. The culture developed and changed historically. This process happens in western culture and the culture of the world. The cultural changes occur as a result of colonization, globalization.
The strings of the culture also change in the advancement of the technology, communication, transport, and infrastructure improvements and expansion of the military. The developing countries make changes for the sake of the development, and for the prosperous countries. If they strict with the one kind of culture, how can come forward and chose the way of success.
Western or European culture began to undergo the rapid changes with the arrival of Columbus in the new world and start to struggle with the industrial revolution. The modern period 1914-1915 is characterized by the transformational era. The high modern people make changes in it and strongly marked by the war experiences and developed countries excel in every matter reforms the country (H. H. Werlin, Poor nations, rich nations: A theory of governance).
The third world countries pushed to the industrialization and reduced their dependency to the trade and the growth promotion.
Question No 3: #
Answer: Liberal democracy is a political ideology and the form of the government in which representation. It operates under the principles of classical democracy.
It is called western democracy. The selection of eth liberal democracy made by the free, fair, and competitive election between the political parties and separation powers into the different branches of eth government. The open society practices this role of law in everyday life. The liberal democracy demands equal civil rights, public protection, and civil liberties.
Liberal democracies make a constitution. The decision-making power is a subject rule to the law. It delineates the power of the government. After the 20th century, the liberal democracy becomes an essential part of the United States. Liberal democracies are also tended by tolerance and pluralism.
It is widely offered social and political views. The liberal democracy does not imply the government democracy that allows the political ideology of liberalism (H. H. Werlin, Bureaucracy and democracy: An essay in memory of Dwight Waldo).
Classical democracy based on full political participation. Democracies have specific limits on particular freedom. Classical democracy refers to the consensus building. It is essential for the development of the institution. It requires an effective liberal democracy. Classical democracy is necessary for the socio-economic development the comparison of the Singapore and Jamaica. It is the two-party system. The countries give emphasis on the classical rather than the liberal. Democracy improves foreign aid.
The classical democracy brought about the revival of achievements across Europe. The first step was taken in Holland. The government allows the citizens to take part in the parliaments. The assemblies elect the preventatives in the various social classes. The government pushed for the democratic system. It improved the way of eth reforms.
The United States showcased the operational parliament and separation of the state’s powers. The existence of the society “voluntarily co-existence. The people enjoy more widely economic powers, more rights to the people; it gives more give favor to the famous economics. The condition of liberal democracy emerges and speculates about its future in developing countries.
Liberal democracy’s hard for the institutional, but it is sustainable in developing countries. The classical democracy is described at the government meeting. All decisions are made by eth assembly to which all citizens belong.
All the citizens of classical democracy have the right to speak and vote at the meeting of the assembly. The duty of the citizens to participate in them then in the system. The decision will be taken under the check of the majority of people.
Question No 4: #
The corruption is devastating the developing countries. Corruption takes many forms in the emerging countries. Corruption pervades in the developing country. The rich countries are honest, and poor countries are not. Corruption has several manifestations and people of every country adopt the different lifestyles.
It determines the rule of law, affects the development, and prevents the government from performing their duties. Developing countries have done visible corruption. The underdeveloped countries have a lack of the judicial system. The emerging countries do not have the proper check and balances.
Corruption is evil. It is the violation of eth country regulations and devastation of the rights which are living depressed. The capabilities and abilities of the population who do their work honestly and sincerity leads to the country to the way of progress. The causes and factors improve the social, political, and economic mechanisms of a particular society.
It is the universalization of the globe and population. The spread of the corruption is easy, and it is not easy to overcome corruption. Once it starts in any society, it is not easy to remove. The underdeveloped country becomes to follow the most adverse circumstances (H. H. Werlin).
Corruption creates decay in the society, but the lust of the money does not think over to the community point of view cannot see the matters for personal gratification.
Corrupts are dishonest and decay in the economic system of society. That’s why developing countries become more corrupted and come in underdeveloped countries. The people require for the illegal gratification. In the third world country Pakistan, no government official is not moving forward to taking responsibility.
Those individuals who want to follow the lawful ways are so confused. The economic system of eth country get out the main streams of the financial system or named as black money. The political personalities involved in this system. The political leaders without knowing the factual circumstances play an ambiguous role characterize the situation.
The corruption takes the many forms of nepotism, good decoration, consistency, and inconsistency of the policies, misuse of the authority, contracts, extortions, ineptitude, cheating, resistance, and theft role of the donor in the promotion of the country. The effects of corruption do not compete in the corruption league.
All types of organization private, government, and NGOs disrupts the economy of the country. Certain influential authorities in the system of the government generate corruption and corruption activities. In developed countries, the rules and laws were strict. The people don’t violate the rules. Honest and sincere people think about the progress of the country.
The people pay the tax and the bank secrecy laws for the protection of the country’s financial situation. In developed countries, pays the penalty of their misdeeds. The government rules are very strict. The people of the developed countries accept their responsibilities. Social constraint lies in sustainable peace, security, and stability. Countries were devastating the poor country, and rich countries came to power on anti-corruption.
Question No 5: #
The process of globalization interacts and integrates among the people companies, governments, and the different nations. This process drove the companies to international trades and get the latest information on information technology. The procedure of the globalization is very beneficial for the rich and the developed countries.
The movement is fairly good for human goods, the capital of the country, and increases the information done in the result of the integration. The level of international trade dramatically increases. The process benefits the rich and developed countries. Some advantages occurred in third world countries. The developed countries can take the benefit more theta traditional countries decide to relocate the low-cost economy.
Many new jobs will be created, those people who are unemployed get the better opportunity of the livelihood. The experienced person climbs to the higher cooperative platform and can earn in a better way.in the process of globalization; the people successfully cut down the poverty despite late opening up in their economy (H. H. Werlin, Corruption and Democracy).
As a result of globalization. Things can easily exchange to the borders of the other countries. It played the critical role establishment of eth global terrific. The global tariffs have been reducing from 40% to 4%. The strategy allows economic diversifications.
Globalization gives exposure to the competition. The people have become more competitive and escape from the failures to do so. Local firms become powerful with the allocation of the resources from the international trading. The people try to adopt the more efficient, latest techniques. Innovation activities will increase, and people inclined to roll out to the availability of eth new products.
The new products satisfy consumer satisfaction. People tend to improve the quality of the goods. Globalization brings success to the local economy in the long run. Through globalization, more and more products available in the market at lower prices like barley produce in the country, the grain comes from the other country too. It will increase the economy of the country.
Now, its price begins to fall. In this way, the standard of living will also be increased with the most of the choice of the goods. The rich country gets more benefits fragmentation of the production process. It hits the targets of the cost-minimizing. In many parts of Asia, people perform their tasks at low prices.
The raw material is easily obtainable, and the cost of the shipping has fallen. So the goods can be produced at a low cost in most of the circumstances. Productivity is considerably high. Entrepreneurs can get profits. The management will reward themselves along with the bonus but the widening income inequality between the developed and developing countries (H. H. Werlin, Corruption, and Democracy).
The few people make the vast fortune out of it. They are usually the firm owner that supply the raw material in foreign countries. Foreign firms will reinvest part of their profit into the local economy. It gives economic growth to its boost. The standards of living in developing countries when the countries become the house of so many countries.
The unskilled workers have received an increase in their paycheck. It is also increased their workload too. The factory workers are also exploited in other countries (H. H. Werlin, Corruption, and Democracy).
Werlin, Herbert H. “Bureaucracy and democracy: An essay in memory of Dwight Waldo.” Public Administration Quarterly (2001): 290-315. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/40861843?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents>.
—. “Corruption and Democracy.” The Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies (2007): 359.
—. Poor nations, rich nations: A theory of governance. 2003. <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1540-6210.00293/full>.
Werlin, Herbert H. “he mysteries of development: studies using political elasticity theory.” (1998). <http://www.popline.org/node/527326>.
Werlin, Herbert. “Linking decentralization and centralization.” A critique of the new development administration (1992): 223-235.