This report is all about the proposal of smart city infrastructure in Kuwait and its main purpose is to analyze and design the layout regarding the launching of smart city concepts throughout the country. So starting from the challenges in launching this scheme and the first problem is the slower development throughout the country in addition to the environmental problems which the country is facing. Another problem is the increase in crime rates and hence the inadequate system of police in tracking down the criminals.
Hence the government has decided to initiate smart city program throughout the counter by starting the project from the capital. The purpose of smart city is to serve the purpose of the well-being of the people. The smart city will be based on wireless sensor network which will be connected to the main system at the center. The concept of intelligence activities of the city will also come into effect. The main system which includes the electricity usage together with more advanced cybersecurity systems would be the main ingredients of this project. The use of sensors will help the authorities in identifying humans and their belongings.
Next is the smart electricity which includes the concept of power generation from renewable sources and most importantly the solar energy system. The monitoring of electricity will be done through smart meters in which the electricity can flow in reverse mode when the consumer itself can generate power to the grid which as a result reduces billing cost of the electricity and the gird can also make use of their surplus electricity coming from the consumer.
Similarly, the onboard sensors also have a great significance in transmitting and receiving data. This is very useful in predicting different quantities like the flow of traffic flow can alert the local police to resolve the traffic blockage and hence clearing the traffic. Another application can be regarding the tracking down the criminals in which the police can make use of their data to monitor the sequence of the small task done by the criminals before executing their important goal. The police can make use of the data points to reach up to the specific location and then capture the criminals.
So we see the importance of smart city project which brings itself with various benefits in order to make the city safer and more comfortable. Now we move on to the health side of the smart city in which it accounts for public health challenges. The smart city project will also cater for public health sector by developing various health care centers, and their main aim is to execute the following. The first objective is the community mobilization, secondly, it accounts for community-based information center and thirdly which is the main factor, and it is the water sanitation along food safety with air pollution system.
The healthy city also caters for health development, promoting effective education, a partnership with intersectional collaboration. The last is the training sector along with capacity-building and emergency services. Other things related to smart city project is the intelligent and efficient use of available resources and the improvement of the quality of life with the reduced low-carbon economy.
Hence we that all these things is based on only one principle which is the Internet of things (IOT) which contributes towards the connectivity of home-based appliances by the application of smart grid systems and in terms of vehicles which includes the smart parking system, real-time traffic regulation and the onboard sensor to monitor the human behavior and their belongings. In this report, we will highlight the smart city characteristics which will play a major role in the development of the country.
Chapter: 1 Introduction
The concept of the smart city soon began in 1993 in which the term ‘smart’ is derived from intelligence, to go digital, sustainable and know legible. The factor being and smart were the effective terms in specifying the smartness of the city. To understand the concept of being digital and smart, we see that there are major steps in defining this objective. The first step is to build the strategy in the systematic literature review to collect data about the smart city. It was done with the help of Google scholar. The second step is the storage and retrieval of storing the information in an ad-hoc network for literature analysis. Lastly, the third objective is the extraction of quantitative and qualitative information regarding digital smart city evolution (Abu-Ayyash, 1981).
So in these two decades, the concept of the smart city has highly developed and there was five analysis, and the first analysis is the exploration of the causes of discovering why the smart city was developed. The second analysis is the determining the factor of how smart and digital were born and what were the necessities of these factors. The third analysis mentions the validated explanations of being digital and being smart. (Abu-Ayyash, 1981)
The similarities were emphasized along with the differences between these two concepts. The fourth analysis is the acceptance by the government to induct these two factors in the urban sectors (cities). The problems related to these two factors when converting from traditional level to upper level were considered. The last analysis was made based on the geographical platform in which their characteristics along with the implementation and its implications on geographical locations (Abu-Ayyash, 1981).
The concept of smart cities emerged during the 20th century and it was developed on the basis of information and communication technologies. When the process of urbanization began which offered a complete change in people’s way of living due to the provision of better transport and healthcare facilities along with the abandonment of rural areas. The concept of creating new job opportunities was very effective and in this way, work along with education and social life progressed rapidly. This expanded the perimeter of the urbanization together with the industrialization (Al-Ghawi, 2016).
On the other hand, due to increased urbanization and industrialization it has created a lot of problems for the public. The problems were very complex which indicates the alarming situation traffic jams of automobiles which resulted in lots of emissions warming and other environmental factors. Numerous diseases were introduced and the dependency on communication devices increased to a higher level and so the over system became complex which resulted in increased difficulty in handling it. Another major factor was the depreciation of the available resources with lots of wastage and so there it was cleared that there is a need to manage this clutter (Chiara Certomà, 2017).
Therefore, the concept of the smart city was developed and the purpose was to manage the resources and other associated departments in a systematic way in order to provide the level of satisfaction to the people while utilizing the resources. The concept developed was to combat the existing urbanization problems which relate to heavy traffic congestion, overcrowding in education institutions, exposure to various pollutants and skyrocketing cost of the necessities available to the people. Another problem is the ever increasing crime rates which has become a question mark for the security authorities in regards to their efficiencies in their work. This has led to the security and safety of the people to be put at risk. So that’s why the concept of the smart city came into being for properly managing the existing framework and to enhance the functions of the authorities for the betterment of the country (Al-Ghawi, 2016).
Moreover, the smart city concept would also help in conserving the available land resources which will be fruitful for future use and as a result various techniques are being developed in defining new technologies for energy conservation and its adequate use for public which includes generation of electricity, use of automotive vehicles by introducing another concept of being hybrid in order to reduce the dependency of existing petroleum product which comes from the underneath fossil resources. Thus it will enhance the productivity regarding the usage of energy production and it would also help in retaining the longevity of the fossil fuel for future needs (Al-Ghawi, 2016).
The smart city development program is important due to the existing problems in the country Kuwait. The problems refer to the pollution due to numerous sources which is become danger for the people and animals living nearby. It is estimated that the pollution started from the vehicular traffic which has become a major concern in Kuwait and this has led to another problem which has become more difficult thing to deal with it. So referring to the pollution we see that other types of pollution are the groundwater pollution and due to this various diseases are spreading very rapidly. The main cause of the diseases if the use of water for drinking purposes which has led to cholera along with gastro diseases and so the average of the health of the country is declining (Alberto Leon-Garcia, 2016).
Another reason which has forced the government to think about the smart city program is the concern about the increasing crime rates which has hampered the security and safety of the public. The recent reports suggest that numerous crimes include the highest percentage of street crimes and the inefficiency of the police to counter the criminals due to their old methods for encountering the criminals and hence the problem of street crimes remains unresolved (Campbell, 2013). Moreover, another factor includes the heavy traffic congestion which has affected the overall business industry if the country. The increasing loss of business industry has lowered the GDP of the country and the a major doubt is being built in the minds of the people that there is a danger of financial crises and it will cause huge inflation ratio throughout the country plus the factor of cutting down the cost of the oil prices which will further damage the already shrinking economic health of the country (Committee, 2012).
So these are the reasons which are mentioned above which have led to the process of implementing the concept of smart city project throughout the country. The programs which are being proposed as a part of smart city project are intelligent traffic system, it also includes smart criminal investigation program and smart environmental control which considers various pollution control system along with the induction eco-friendly devices for both personal use and automotive use (Renata Paola Dameri, 2014). So these schemes will help the government and the people in contributing towards the betterment of the community and the countries overall economic growth. It will also bring the government along with the stakeholders who are involved in this process and most importantly the public closer together to achieve this objective (Rodríguez-Bolíva, 2015).
Considering the background of the smart city we that there are numerous concepts which had been incorporated in smart city analysis. Those concepts start from the wired city which deals with the connectivity within in the city. This connectivity also means that connections through sensors on board along with effective telecommunication systems. The second concept is the virtual city which mentions the idea of manifestations and its representations if cities. The third is the ubiquitous city which is basically an enhancement of smartness of the city and it considers the ubiquitous information technology sector (Review, 2014).
Furthermore, the fourth concept is the intelligent city which shared the ides of innovation and creativity. It is also known as digital infrastructure for both knowledge-based management as well as digital methodology in terms of communication. The fifth concept is the information city where it offers the gathering and sharing of information regarding many subjects and finally displaying it to the public about an update in the current infrastructure (Review, 2014).
The sixth concept is the digital city which accounts for digital dimensions and it includes social, political and ideological figures. It also considers the involvement of scientific research which needs to be done in the city along with web-based representations. This will also give rise to more employment opportunities which relate to content & web developing programs and so the concept of unemployment would be completely eliminated. The seventh concept is the smart community which governs the way of living, cooperation with the government authorities, education sectors and citizens. The interactions between the government and the public would be very fruitful regarding the progress of the economy and the work done will be entirely transparent (Stan Geertman, 2015).
The last two concepts are the knowledge city and the learning city. These two concepts are very similar to each other and they both are emphasized in terms of sharing of knowledge regarding the culture and the knowledge of latest innovation in the city or country through enhanced IT infrastructures. Whereas in the case of learning aspect, it considers the individual and community are learning aspect. Through various learning opportunities in terms of improved wages and other lifelong learning elements it brings benefits to the society with more creative and technological advancement in the workforce. It will also give rise to future better living standards for the public and would also contribute to promoting tourism in the country (Review, 2014).
Referring to the advantages of cybersecurity in regards to the smart city project, we see that the first advantage is the enhanced security in the city. Secondly, it boosts the cyber defense area along with its speed. Moreover it aids in protecting the crucial data against various cybercrimes through viruses and worms. Next are the data privacy protection and the protection of the connected networks and its resources with the implementation of strict online protocols (Al-Turjman, 2018).
In the other hand the disadvantages it adds to the system is the huge investment in inducting this system. Next is the difficulty in diagnosing the problems in case of a network break down occurs and it can be very time consuming to locate and troubleshooting it. The main interface must update regularly in order to keep virus definitions up to date and it can be very costly. The last covers the system hang and slow down if there is a too much burden on it and it can render the operation ineffective (Al-Turjman, 2018).
In contrast to the guidelines and framework regarding the smart city development, there are five different frameworks for launching this project. Those five frameworks include the specifying the scope of the project and the second is the conceptualization of smart city. The third deals with the literature search which refers to the implementations to be made in this project with the benefits it brings and the fourth accounts for analysis along with the synthesis. The last fifth framework considers the research agenda on initiating this project (David Publishing Company, 2014).
So considering the details of every framework we have discussed we see that the first framework considers various research methods in which all paperwork are considered and it comes under the focus aspect. The second framework is the goal in which the objectives regarding the project smart city is defined. It also includes the differences, similarities as well as the overlaps. Now considering the third aspect which is the organization concerns and this deals with the order of the literature review to be organized. Hence the last covers the perspective, audience and coverage which mentions the idea of literature perspective and the audience with the literature is addressed along with citation representation (David Publishing Company, 2014).
The second framework is the concept of the smart city which refers to the implementations to be made which is based on certain principles. Those principles include technology dimension, human properties and the institutional constraints. Coming to the third framework literature search which involves four classifications. The first is the selection of database source, second is the right choices of keywords and criteria and the third & fourth accounts for to & fro search along with literature suitability according to the needs (David Publishing Company, 2014).
The fourth main framework is the analysis & synthesis of literary work which deals with time analysis for exploration of smart city literature work in the last twenty years. The second is the terminology analysis which deals with the relationship between digital and smart cities along with their properties. Moreover the third is the specifying definitions in which the contents of these two concepts and the last is the analysis of the topological aspect of these two concepts. It considers the theoretical and empirical study of the topological aspects of the system (Alberto Leon-Garcia, 2016).
Another aspect is the geographic analysis which includes the geographical layouts on how they are implemented. The last framework is setting the agenda for research which specifies the characteristics of the smart city and it also includes the inside details of the concept in order to carry out empirical studies so that final work id me with complete research which includes all facts and figures along with the problems that need to be addressed on priority basis (David Publishing Company, 2014).
In this aspect, we see the relation between the smart cities as compared to existing cities in Kuwait is such that after the implementation of this smart project. Many experts believe that a new Kuwait smart city will be equipped with most modern technologies and this will include the operation of smart devices in a very systematic way. We also witness that the city will include timeout fix sensor to monitor the traffic load and to save energy. Another point which relates efficient energy utilization is the solar energy which will prove to be very useful as the climate of Kuwait is very hot and dry and so the need for generation of electricity will be very useful (Abdulrahman Alkandari, 2012).
Moreover, for a proper communication within the city, a system transmitting and receiving sensors will be installed which is also known as RI-MAC which will be effective in reducing of the cars and the avoidance of collisions. Another technology which is called GPS, SOS and others along with advanced Bluetooth technology will come into effect for enhancing effective communications and proper utilization of energy sources without any further wastage (Al-Turjman, 2018).
In addition to, adequate internet services will be launched by making use of future generation Wi-Fi along with WiMAX and 5G networking will make the city smarter. Different zones would be established for keeping up with the centralized network and so will be done through micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) technology for monitoring the environment of the city and its premises (Abdulrahman Alkandari, 2012).
The problem statement refers to the two main problems of Kuwait. The problems are the following.
- Traffic congestion
Considering the pollution which includes water, soil, and air pollution. The first is the water pollution which deals with sea water, and here we see that the water is severely polluted due to excessive industrial wastes which contain toxic pollutants having both organic & non-organic compounds which implied adverse effects on the quality of water. Next is the oil spills from the oil tankers while exporting oil. Other water pollution factors include various emissions coming from vehicular traffic and aircraft (Efthimios Tambouris, 2015).
Now considering the groundwater pollution which considers the dumping of heavy metals and its compounds their by polluting the air along with the release of odor smell which has severely polluted the air. Another factor is the hard water effect which possesses a high mineral content. These high mineral contents are located in gas and oil pipelines which get dumped into water and affected the quality (Abdulrahman A. Alkandari, 2017).
On the other hand, if we talk about the air pollution which gets badly affected due to the release of harmful gases due to major pollutants from chimneys from oil refineries and coal power plants. There are other chemicals which get released to air which are CFCs aerosol sprays used in refrigeration units, and it has become a major concern to the atmosphere in Kuwait. Moreover, another factor which has highly contributed in polluting the air is the release of gases from numerous chemical plants which has caused air pollution, and many people have suffered respiratory problems due to these industrial measures (Abdulrahman A. Alkandari, 2017).
The third main concern regarding the pollution is the soil pollution, and it is because of the dumping of agricultural wastes in several areas which has resulted in soil pollution. Another factor is the livestock wastes which contaminates the crops and making them ineffective to be inefficient to harvest and use for the desired applications. On the other hand, the second main problem in Kuwait is the ever-increasing traffic congestion. There are several causes which are the following. The first cause is the vehicular accidents at highways which causes major blockage leading to heavy traffic build up. The second is the use of inefficient traffic signals on the main roads. The third cause is the filling of parking places which put other incoming cars to face traffic. The fourth is the effect of climate change and temperature variation which affects the overall environment (Abdulrahman A. Alkandari, 2017).
Moreover, the fifth cause is the damages in the asphalt layer which renders the ineffectiveness in crossing that damaged area, naturally causing traffic congestion. The sixth cause is the building of cracks due to chemical reactions taking place inside the asphalt layer which as a result potholes build upon the road surface. Other major causes of traffic congestions include the movement of the foundations together with the settling of the buildings. Finally, the last aspect is the effect of weather conditions along with wear and tear of roads. So these are the factors which are a great concern for the people of Kuwait in countering these situations (Abdulrahman A. Alkandari, 2017).
The objective of this research which is based on the smart city project and it includes the following aims.
- To convert into the smart city through applicable strategies with the help of effective and innovative use of available resources
- Applying digital policies for the provision of electronic services to the public through the application of advanced technologies like cloud computing and the application of internet of things.
- Merging of being a smart concept with digital analogy through the digital representation of the devices used which employ smart technology(Alissa, 2009).
In regards to research outline, so far we have discussed different aspects of the smart city project along with the literature reviews. Here we will highlight the various field of study which will be included in this report. The field of study is the crucial ingredients of the smart city project, and it is undeniable that the highlighted course of study will play a major role in making the cities smart & efficient (Deakin, 2013).
The fields which will be covered in this report are the following. The first field which will be covered is the introduction of renewable sources of energy. This will include the application of solar energy which accounts for the types of solar panels and its installations layouts. We will also cover the technologies involved in the field of communication which will include the advanced Wi-Fi along with other topologies regarding the communication channel (Alissa, 2009).
Next the field which will be covered the traffic monitoring systems regarding the traffic avoidance collision system together with the advancement in the generation of electricity with the help of smart grid and smart meters in order to constantly monitor the electricity supply of the consumer and the ability to transfer the electricity to another consumer easily without hassle work. Lastly, the task which will be covered is the medical facilities, and this will account for monitoring the patient’s operation status along with other medical opportunities. Another aspect is the provision of surveillance systems which will play an important role using onboard sensors to look for the criminals and tracking their actions to capture them. The sharing of information will be linked through sensors installed on every street which will make the city as a safe city (Menniti, 2017 ).
In this chapter, we will emphasize the methodology to be adopted regarding the implementation of the smart city program. The methodology would include the layout of installing the equipment which will include installations of traffic sensors, cameras and other infrastructure related to networking. We will also highlight the implementation procedures and how the new systems installed would be effective.
In the field of methodology, we will first start with the smart city layout which will include the designs of the building with an automation feature. So initiating the development of the smart buildings, we see that it includes the factor of mobility, economy along with the providence of innovative services which implies on the planning of the citizens and their infrastructure. The infrastructure includes the proper use of the resources which covers the electricity usage along with water & gas constraints (Carlos Cerezo, 2015).
So the proper use age of these quantities is meant for healthy environmental balance along with the ecosystem of the overall city. The main idea is to control the consumption of the available resources. Next is the agricultural side and the smartness comes in the form of introducing new technology in constant monitoring and supervising the agricultural aspects, and that includes the supervision of crops and other plantation. Sensors are installed on the base of the crops for continuous monitoring of the need of the crops regarding ripening time and how much quantity of the ingredient to be given to the crop (Carlos Cerezo, 2015).
The sensors will also specify the harvesting time of the crops and when it would be ready for the use for commercial and industrial applications. So whenever the crops needed the supplies, the onboard sensors can relay the signals to the main hub where it will alert the farmers to arrange for the supplies for the crops which are executed through their advanced machines. And so the similar principle applies to the making use of pesticides (Carlos Cerezo, 2015).
Now we come to the smart building automation which includes the automation procedures to execute their respective tasks appropriately. The automation system is classified into energy conservation units, networking, and transport units, etc. Usually, there are four main systems which are integrated together under constant supervision. These integrated systems are the following. The first systems are the building automation system or BAS and the second refers to telecommunication systems (TS), automation system for offices (OAS) and finally, the computer-aided based facility management system (Nayef Alghais, 2017).
Moreover, considering the main automation system components. It deals with design specifications of the building where it includes the building skins, and within the skin, various parameters are the material of the building regarding the shades along with other things which mention climatic conditions like water, humidity, and air. It also considers other intelligence systems like shading devices with PV solar panels which are incorporated and can provide electricity which is a good thing in reducing billing cost and moreover it is natural (Carlos Cerezo, 2015).
Considering the double skinned buildings which support the ventilation systems and heating applications. The system is such that the outside temperature and humidity can be controlled with the help of shading adjustments. However research is in full swing using special software, and the primary focus is to incorporate a higher level of intelligence with adaptive control of the building environment along with energy-conserving systems with neural networks that require proper programming skills (Granath, 2016).
Other new technologies include the HVAC systems with the daylight glare index along with natural ventilation and the control of outside climatic parameters like wind, humidity, and temperature. Another innovation is the lighting systems which include the auto-dimming controls, and the consumption will be around 30% to 40% of the electricity. They also aspect of this topic is the electricity metering and sub-metering systems which can reverse, unlike the conventional meters. This will allow the power generated by the consumer through its renewable sources to transfer power to the utility grid (Efthimios Tambouris, 2015).
The implementation of this mega project would bring various benefits to the people of Kuwait and start the project with full potential we first consider the implementation of smart grid procedure. The smart grid procedure consists of different definitions which include both technological and functional perspectives. It is a flexible system that connects consumers as well as the suppliers to the monitoring systems regarding the usage of the electricity. Moreover, the main parts present in this system are the proper communication channel, hardware along with software for monitoring and supervising and hence the existing grid systems. The main benefit is the providence of real-time information (Hisham Moustafa, 2012).
Next is the smart meter project and the purpose of this type of meter is to enhance the fe3lxbility on using the electricity with an additional feature of supplying power back to the grid from the consumer. In this way, the energy is properly used, and it saves a lot on electricity bills. They can regulate the power which is distributed to various devices in the house, office or restaurants, etc. along with real-time information. Thus the smart meters provide both benefits to the customer as well as the utility company (Hisham Moustafa, 2012).
Another implementation that is mandatory is the intelligent transportation system, and it is a great innovation when it is put into practice. Here it employs various transport systems in a different way such as taxi system, metro rail transport, air transport, etc. It also includes the other systems which are highly related to the transportation system and it includes the smart parking system along with road monitoring management systems which are also called RIMS for short (McQueen, 2017).
The purpose of the traffic management system is to monitor the traffic situation in the city and the highways. It will help the local traffic authorities with up to date information regarding the traffic flow, accidents occurred and the sources causing traffic congestion. It will also facilitate the emergency vehicles like ambulance and firefighting vehicles by turning all the traffic lights to green alongside the direction in which the emergency vehicle is traveling (Abdulrahman A. Alkandari, 2017).
On the other hand, if we look for smart home systems in which the technologies invented will be able to aid the members of the household to carry out the tasks as suggested by the members of the house. The implementation will be such that devices like mobile, computer and other related electronic will communicate in order to satisfy both the owner and the occupant. Likewise, these smart devices will be able to turn on the lights along with heating and cooling systems whenever a person enters a room. Similarly, these devices can act as a security guard when a person leaves the office or house then at this instant the devices will shut the door and lock it and hence turn the onboard security cameras are on (Adnan-al-nazi, 2010).
Now we come to the smart water system in which it features the use of automated systems to reduce excessive water usage. The devices will operate in a fine manner in which it includes controlling and supervision of the atmospheric water and then it is analyzed with improved water usage. The third major thing is the cleanliness of the water with the help of controlling devices will turn on the filtration of pumps for filtering the water and hence freshwater is ensured. The fourth setting is the contamination of water control and the last is the use of smart water meters to estimate the usage of water with respect to the member of the house or office. The technique will also help in providing water to the plantation area (SPECTRUM.IEEE.ORG, 2015 ).
Moving on to the smart food consumption in which supervises the food supply, its quality and its preservation methods. It is highly recommended in commercial and industrial applications where the health monitoring system checks the quality of the food. It will also predict the status of the food to be expired (Al-Ghawi, 2016).
In contrast to the smart city pattern design, there are many patterns which are classified into layers that contribute towards the wellbeing of the smart city. It starts with the city pattern which considers the induction of smart technology which includes the infrastructure related to the urban side along with the governance and urban planning strategies with the addition of overall vision and identification. Next is the green city patterns to which it refers to the aims and objectives along with the environmental constraints for keeping into s smart circle (Adnan-al-nazi, 2010).
Then comes the interconnection pattern which supports innovative procedures like innovation in communication systems which employ the onboard sensors for providing a proper channel. This pattern is also responsible for connecting communities and the interaction with the devices. The interaction made with devices is made very user-friendly and hence the giving of commands to the devices is carried out (Adnan-al-nazi, 2010).
Moreover, the main pattern in the smart city project is the instrument pattern in which it deals with the hardware of the devices connected and those hardware includes meters and sensors which provide real information of the current situation. Now comes the integration pattern which contributes towards the distribution side. The distribution is meant for sharing the information from devices to devices and with human interaction which is all present in each and every field (Adnan-al-nazi, 2010).
Furthermore the presence of application pattern also plays a major role in optimizing the use of components along with the effective sharing of information which is provided in urban infrastructure. The last comes the innovation pattern which deals with arranging the infrastructure of the city by making it more advanced in a beautiful way and so making more attractive (Jeena, 2017 ).
There are other patterns which include the fundamental concepts of the smart city, and in this, we will highlight three biggest factors which are technology factors, human factors, and the institutional factor. Considering the first factor which is the technology factor and it includes the technological advancements made in the city. The first is the digital city, ubiquitous city, intelligent city, wired city, hybrid city and the information city (Adnan-al-nazi, 2010).
Coming to the human factors which are one of the important ingredients in the smart city concept. The human factor includes the human essentials for the proper utilization of smart technology. It includes learning aspects, creativity, humane city, and the knowledge city. The last comes to the institutional factors which consider smart growth and smart community. So these are basic things that play a vital role in the development of the smart city pattern (Jeena, 2017 ).
The development of the smart city features smart city integration which includes the following which is listed below.
- Water systems
- Waste management system
- Infrastructure monitoring
- Environment supervision
- Smart transportation
- Smart Security
- Smart Healthcare facilities
Taking the first point into account which is the development of the water systems and in this, it mentions, the extraction of water and the second phase is the processing where the water undergoes purification stages. The third phase is the transportation of water to various towns and cities. The last comes under this development is the water metering, and a similar profile is for gas resources (G. Colombo, 2016 ).
Next, considering the electricity which requires a smart grid along with smart meter systems. This development implies to renewable power generation plus the existing conventional power generation which is done with some modifications in the monitoring side. Another side of the development includes the rapid demand response of both the consumer as well as the utility company (Okeil, 2014).
Moreover, the development sector also includes handling waste procedures to keep the environment clean and friendly. The waste handling method is done through a recycling process and the purpose is to get most of it rather than disposing of it completely. Adequate methods with the incorporation of new technologies to monitor the level of waste and alerts the recycling authorities to collect and recycle the waste without disturbing the atmosphere (Al-Turjman, 2018).
Considering the infrastructure networking system which undertakes the structures of the buildings along with the facilities to be given to the public. Moreover, it also accounts for health monitoring system of the building and it is responsible for the protection of the environment with a feature of detecting the upcoming natural disaster and alerting the public regarding the incoming danger. Furthermore, with respect to the transportation system in which cater for traffic supervision, parking systems with the facility of effective refueling of fuel for the automobiles (Okeil, 2014).
The last comes to the security needs, and the public healthcare facilities which are done under constant monitoring devices and the information shared is up to date which ensures the right decisions to be made when treating the patient, and a similar principle applies to the security authorities before a worse happens.
The requirements and aspects of smart cities are the main questions behind which forced the experts to analyze the concept of smart systems to be implemented on a large scale basis. So first consider the aspects which include the ever-increasing population, poverty, and damages caused by both man-made and natural disasters. So to cut down this problem and to utilize the maximum of the available resources we have now. The main aspect of the smart city is to provide easiness and comfort to the public in a supervised manner (Meziani, 2016 ).
The first requirement of a smart city is the interaction between humans and the devices. The second comes to the use of available resources properly, and those resources could be the use of fossil fuels together with renewable sources of energy. Then comes the proper use of water and gas to get most of it with adequate use for mankind. The third requirement is the enhancement of the existing communication channel in which every department is linked to provide full support to the public and to make it more transparent and user-friendly (Nazerali, 2007).
It incorporates the use of the sensors along with the advanced Wi-Fi & WiMAX equipment to ensure adequate communication. Next is the advancement in healthcare facilities with the feature of time cutting in treating the patients and the cost of it. Moreover, the main part comes which is the transportation aspect which includes the traffic regulation along with smart parking systems for complete easiness to the people (Alissa, 2009).
The last aspect of the smart city system is the flexibility of using the electricity which incorporates the smart grid systems along with smart meter terminology. The purpose of introducing this functionality is to utilize the maximum of the resource while lowering the costs with rapid response. However, we see that above all the main requirement is that everything must be digital which is compatible with every field and so it is it more flexible in being smarter in executing the work and with effectiveness and efficiency (Alissa, 2009).
In this chapter, we will uncover the existing smart city projects in the Middle East and worldwide, and we will compare the results which will help us in analyzing the effects of smart city project in Kuwait when the program is finished. Here the details of the major cities will be figured out, and we will also analyze what problems during implementation and how it was rectified and solved.
In this regard, we will first take the Middle East side where the developments of smart cities have started and it includes mainly the GCC countries, and the first GCC country is the UAE where the project name “Smart Dubai” has started and it includes the emphasis on people’s needs and healthcare facilities. The infrastructure would be such that being a small country regarding size it will be able to cater to 50 million people by the year 2020. The project is currently started by Greenfield initiatives (Center for international and regional studies, 2015).
The second GCC country is the Saudi Arabia in which the smart project will expand to five major cities. The cities include Makkah in the first place which is then followed by Riyadh then Jeddah, Medina and finally the city of Al-Ahsa. The overall projects will be based on five different departments and the first will be smart parking which is the biggest problem in KSA, which causes a heavy traffic congestions and the purpose of converting into a smart one help to resolve the parking issues by the introduction of paid parking along with enough room for catering average number of cars which is heavily dependent upon the strength of the public going to the particular place (Center for international and regional studies, 2015).
The next project is the smart lightening systems which will be equipped with advanced LED lightning and so consuming less power along with the ability to switch on and off with auto control of illumination. The third project will be smart, solid waste disposal which would deal with waste removal techniques by employing smart methods of collecting and disposing of waste with an efficient recycling process (Center for international and regional studies, 2015).
Moreover, the fourth project will be smart cameras for traffic monitoring which will aid the local traffic police to gather information regarding traffic congestion and the police can reach the affected area to clear the blockage. This project will also include speed cameras for tracking high-speed vehicles. Coming to the fifth project which is pollution monitoring. This considers the pollution monitoring control system due to a number of factors like sandstorms, vehicular traffic emissions, etc. (Center for international and regional studies, 2015).
Now coming to the kingdom of Bahrain where the smart city initiative has been launched with the purpose of building an eco-friendly city. Similarly, the smart city project also started in Qatar, and the initiative has been taken by the Qatari government in collaboration with orange business services to develop the city of Doha to new levels. Next is the country of Oman where the smart city implementation has been on a full swing in the city of Muttrah. The purpose of developing it to resolve the current crises especially in energy and communication sectors by inducing the use of low energy consumption technology for the conservation of energy and to get most of it to fulfill its future needs (Center for international and regional studies, 2015).
So with the smart project on the full potential in the Middle East, the Kuwaiti government also signed a deal with South Korea for launching the project of a smart city in major cities and town in Kuwait with an objective to resolve the current issues and to reduce the dependency of the natural resources which is depleting rapidly. So the smart project program is initiated to conserve energy and to provide the public with all the facilities. Hence we witness the developments in the Middle East and the rest of the world where the smart city project is at full potential along with various benefits (Center for international and regional studies, 2015).
If we talk about the smart city concept worldwide, the following is the list of cities where smart city project has been implemented. The first city is Vienna and the second one is Toronto, and so the third city is Paris. The fifth city is New York, the sixth city London, seventh city Tokyo along with Berlin, Copenhagen, Hong Kong and finally the Barcelona. So these are the cites where this principle is already applied, and now we will highlight the details of some of the cities along with the implications on the people living in that respected city (Sarah Moser, 2014).
Considering the city of Paris which accounts for the Bike & Cars sharing program. It was first initiated in 2007 and the scope of the project defines the 15000 bicycles along with 13000 stations, and this was specified in an attempt by following the estimation which numbers to 86000 riders. Another program similar to this project is the electric car-sharing program which accounts for a short-term car on a rental basis, and the flexibility occurs by returning to any other participating station (Sarah Moser, 2014).
Similarly in the city of London where the program called clean love streets was launched, and this was done as a part of the smart city program. The purpose of this program is to reduce the level of crimes and other environmental concerns or issues in the neighborhood. These are reported to the city councils which are within reach of everyone living in that area. The users of this app can track the progress of their respective complaints, and it is seen a good initiative for the people as well for the local bodies to clean and maintain the city (Sarah Moser, 2014).
Another project of the smart city was started in Tokyo, Japan, and that program is called the Eco-burb program which is based on the usage of renewable sources of energy like solar panels which are incorporated on the people’s homes. The panels are connected to batteries which makes them energy efficient and hence the whole system is connected to the smart grid. In this way, energy is properly utilized with no wastage factor. In addition to, another green program which was part of the smart city project and this green scale project which is believed to be the number 1 project in the Europe continent. The main aim of this project is to contribute to the green environment (Sarah Moser, 2014).
The program utilizes the following schemes in which around 55% make use of bicycles for their everyday activities. Under this scheme, 71% of the hotel are modified with eco-friendly stems and regarding the food items in which 75% of the food items were organic. Now we come to the smart city scheme in Barcelona in Spain. In this area, numerous smart initiatives were launched, and it includes smart bus tops where it facilitates the public with the feature of Wi-Fi hotspots along with tourist information with digital ads. It also includes the facility of displaying real-time bus timetables (Sarah Moser, 2014).
Other programs include electric vehicles recharging stations and smart parking pots. The purpose of these pots is to the detection of cars with the application of light and metal, materials through payment apps which is made online. Moreover, there are other programs which are launched which are in the following manner.
- Smart LED streetlights
- A smart grid with smart meters
- Solar-powered homes
- Smart parks
The first major initiative is the provision of smart street lights, in which the lights are fitted with environmental-based monitoring sensors. The monitoring of temperature, humidity, noise and air pollution are accounted for. These lights are controlled through Wi-Fi for managing the levels of light in order to save energy. Next is the smart grid system along with solar power for the home project was implemented in an effort to save energy and to provide flexibility to the consumer regarding the usage and the ability to send the electricity back to the grid. The usage of the electricity consumption and the rest sent to the grid are recorded on the smart meters. This project is quite similar to solar project where the use of natural resource become significant in generating power (Abdulrahman Alkandari, 2012).
The last two projects are connected garbage bins and the smart parks initiative. In regards to garbage bins where the sensors are placed which monitors the trash levels and the implementation regarding the filling of garbage is relayed to the councils for garbage collection. This optimizes the healthiness of the overall environment and to reduce costs. This smart parks scheme was implemented for automatic watering of the plantation especially in parks (Dr. M. Newlin Rajkumar, 2017).
The sensors collect the data in terms of temperature, the humidity of the soil along with the temperature of the air. So with respect to these parameters, the parks are watered. So referring to the smart city project in Kuwait. The project includes the layout of the building designs along with environmental control & monitoring. Moreover, it also mentions the smart grid along with traffic monitoring program (Dr. M. Newlin Rajkumar, 2017).
Considering the cities in which the implementation of a smart city project is already completed and so we will highlight the main aspects of this project by getting deep into it. The first city which is going to consider is the city of Barcelona in Spain. The second city is Tel Aviv in Israel. The third accounts for the city of Bhubaneswar in Orissa while the fourth city is the Pune in Maharashtra (Shah Manan Sureshchandra, 2016).
Considering the city of Barcelona in which the smart city program was conducted in five different phases. The five different phases include the services to be given to the public. The second phase is the making if administrative to be more efficiency by incorporating new communication channels and this was implemented at all levels. The third phase is the participation of citizens in the city’s management for a better environment and cleanliness (Shah Manan Sureshchandra, 2016).
Moreover, the fourth phase is for the integration along with the promotion of entrepreneurship business and lastly the fifth phase is for transparent procedures in government functionaries. So these phases were collaborated to achieve mobility, innovation and hence the sustainability throughout the city. Coming to the Tel Aviv city in which numerous smart city projects were undertaken and it includes a metropolitan system and the purpose is to provide comfort to the public throughout the city. The smart program also includes the advancement made in the ecosystem in order to make the environment cleaner and healthier (Shah Manan Sureshchandra, 2016).
It also considers the smart city hotel where everything is web-based connected with real-time information with various online facilities. Similar to this program the government also initiated the digitalizing program which covers the entire city and it deals with making things accessible to the public through the online application. The main programs are the Tel Aviv bicycle program which contributes for the automation of bicycles along with monitoring of a number of vehicles and to supervise traffic (Sarah Moser, 2014).
Next comes the city of Bhubaneswar which accounts for smart city programs by implementing five different principles which include the formation of urban development in a new way along with the improvement of living in the city by the provision of a diverse range of educational and recreational opportunities to the people. Other facilities include the providence of green environment. The last comes the attracting the knowledge economy for sustainable development in the city and hence to provide tourism to convert the city into a regional economic hub (Sotiris Zygiaris, 2011).
After all, we have discussed the smart city project and its subprograms which were implemented in major cities of the world, and so here we enlist the benefits it brings to us which make our lives more flexible and comfortable. The first advantage is the conservation of energy whether it is electricity, waterfall or gas reserves. With the help of smart city program, it has played a major role in utilizing the natural renewable resources to make most of the energy needs and with the addition of heavy reduction in the bill (Sotiris Zygiaris, 2011).
Another benefit is the providence of the complete transparent system. The devices which employ smart city program provides efficient monitoring the applications such as traffic congestion, tracing the criminals and other related applications. It enables better control and with better planning. Another benefit is the adequate methodology for treating the waste, and thus we see that smart city has done a great job in preserving the ecosystem by contributing to the green environment. The eco-friendly terminology has led to the invention of low power consumption devices without compromising the performance parameters of the devices (Sotiris Zygiaris, 2011).
The major benefit brought by the smart city program is to turn everything into mobile by introducing the smart parking system which employs the use of Wi-Fi networks to price the customer after a certain period spent in parking the car. Similar to this application is the monitoring of traffic which has defined new rules and regulations to be set, and it also includes the factor of educating the public whenever a new technology comes into the market (SudattaKar, 2017).
The last aspect of this topic covers the public safety which mentions the use of onboard sensors to act as a security guard in protecting the office or homes. It can also act as a medium of transmitting information regarding the incident which involves criminal activities and so due to the smart devices which can alert the concerned authorities whether it is police, firefighting department or ambulance services. The smart system has enabled the rapid response of the authorities in reaching the output in no time (SudattaKar, 2017).
Despite many benefits so far we have discussed, there are many disadvantages and because of thus it has hampered many countries in adopting the smart city programs due to many reasons. The reasons are enlisted below, and the following are.
The first biggest disadvantage of smart city project is the heavy investment in mega implementation program. It requires a lot of extensive planning, and it can be very time consuming and sometimes it could over a year for planning a layout. Then following the implementation procedures which would require an advanced infrastructure to be procured and then installed after various modifications in the installation for compatibility with the city premises (Shah Manan Sureshchandra, 2016).
Another disadvantage is the cost of maintenance, and that is the reason why the poorer countries avoid the implementation of smart city as it requires huge maintenance in repairing the onboard systems and so causing much capital to be invested. The factor of huge investment can also bring down the economy of the state if it already has limited resources to run the state. This could also result in taking huge loans and can increase the debt of the country, and this could lead to more additional problems. The main limitations also occur due to its transparent nature; smart system has hampered the privacy of the people’s belongings even the appliances they operate and so many countries will not adopt this system due to the hindrance which is imposed by their cultural values and dimensions (Shah Manan Sureshchandra, 2016).
Finally, we witness that despite many disadvantages, its benefits over to limitations due to its flexibility, reliability, and effectiveness in running the application. According to many experts, it is believed that the smart city program would incorporate more advanced tools and would give rise more applications with new methodologies which will serve our future needs and requirements. Still, research is in full swing, and the efforts are being made to make every functionary be transparent in the operations (Shah Manan Sureshchandra, 2016).
In this chapter, we will highlight the overall discussion so far we have done in the previous chapters. This summary and discussion will emphasize the overall scenario regarding the smart city project which is about to implement in Kuwait. We will also highlight the benefits it will bring to the people of Kuwait despite the limitations we have pointed out.
So starting at the scope of this project which defines the degree of usage in adopting the smart devices to execute our work very efficiently and with comfort. The main feature comes, in this case, is the automation feature and it applies to several fields whether it is all about traffic monitoring, examination of a criminal investigation, medial industry and other miscellaneous projects (G. Colombo, 2016 ).
Moreover, it also includes the idea of utilizing the sensors in order carry out a wide range of task. Those tasks include the monitoring of traffic congestion on highways which is due to an accident. These sensors can relay the information to the police department to look into the matter. So due to smart devices on board, the rapid response is very robust and in this case, the police can check out to the affected area and can clear the traffic without any further delay (Abdulrahman Alkandari, 2012).
Another amazing aspect of smart city is the introduction of various applications which allows easy communication to the councils regarding the existing situation, and so we can task as an example in which it was implemented in the city of London and the scope was the use of app to report the incident in the area which refers to some criminal activity and the councils task a rapid response and then the investigation starts. With such smart app, the users can track their defined status about the incident. This attempt was made to clean the city from such kind of illegal acts with a quick response framework feature (Abdulrahman Alkandari, 2012).
The smart city project provides various smart services whether it is through some sort of apps or an actual application. So the services are following and we will highlight it one by one. The first service which is based on smart city project is the data.seattle.gov which is basically government website and it features smart intelligence systems. The scope of this service is to allow the public to access the information about the happenings in the city along with the procedure of government functionaries and this is all displayed in the form of a web portal (Adnan-al-nazi, 2010).
Another smart government services include the community technology planner, and its purpose was to help people in accessing the information about the technology and the issue of computers. It also features equitable delivery systems to the public. Next service which is basically a large scale project and it is the smart grid infrastructure. This program is intended to save energy from being wasted as it allows the excessive power to be transported back to the utility grid which provides the level of satisfaction on both consumers as well as at the supplier’s side regarding reduced cost on the electricity bills (Al-Ghawi, 2016).
It also emphasizes the use of natural renewable sources like solar, wind and water powered turbines for electricity generation at the consumer side. The billing is done through the use of smart meters. Other related projects which have been launched by the governments worldwide in saving energy are the following.
- Automated metering infrastructure
- Meter data management
- Electric vehicle infrastructure
- Pacific Northwest regional demonstration project
So these are the few projects plus with new related projects which are still in process and the overall objective is to resolve the energy crises which the world is facing.
Coming to other projects and the one of them is the fiber to the premise program and this is all about the connection of commercial. It residential areas into single fiber optic cable with a speeds up to 100mbps and the technology used is the advanced version of optic fiber cable which consumer very less power and moreover it is eco-friendly without any side effects on the environment (Carlos Cerezo, 2015).
There is another project which calls for customer relationship model and this deals with mobile technology which bridges the gap between the government and the public. Similar to this project, another project which is also called SCADA system which makes use of intelligence systems for supervising and monitoring the processes. It is mainly used in large-scale industries and mist typically in oil and gas along hydropower plants. It is also suitable for beverages industry which very much controlled environment is needed (Review, 2014).
In addition to these programs, other programs include waste management program in which we have discussed its operation and outcomes for the wellbeing of the environment. So a drainage and wastewater project came into being which specializes in the development of smart sewerage systems through the use of ultrasonic sensors to monitor the quantity of wastewater. These sensors make use of feedback terminology to open the valve of the sewer which is in proportion to the pulse applied to the actuator to open the sewer. So, in the case of heavy rainfall, the sensors can ail in opening the sewer valve completely to allow more wastewater into the sewer canal. So this technology helps in preventing floods and keeps the environment clean (Review, 2014).
Next is the field operations mapping project and in this the systems based on GPS application collect and manage operations, logistics along with assets to dispatch different teams to the desired place through the highly animated integrated mapping procedure. The response time is very short and the action being done is quick and effective. The map made is based on real-time and data. So another project is the common operating picture which accounts for the forms and receipts for various departments, and so the alert will be generated by the people through their respective systems. We see here that this program uses the smart technique in informing the employees about the new update by sharing the information with the employee’s systems (Review, 2014).
Another similar program is the IT cloud program which deals with the services to be utilized through cloud storage. This is very efficient and reliable methodology for sharing the work and managing by storing it in their appropriate places through cloud technology. It again uses the smart feature in communication with a number of devices which are connected wirelessly to send and receive the information, hence this provides the good level of satisfaction and comfort in managing and utilizing the information in a very fine manner. Due to this application, a concept of cloud computing has been developed which is gaining popularity worldwide in managing the crucial task, and it is especially important for storing data and programs (Review, 2014).
Following the smart applications which we have discussed, we move on to the next segment which is the electronic plan reviewing system in which the plans along with the layouts are planned systematically, and so it makes it easy for the organization to carry out the pending task in a very efficient way. Hence this program saves a lot of time in fetching the information and analyzing it, and the smart thing is that it reminds the user about the pending task to be done in appropriate time (Okeil, 2014).
The last is the digital evidence management systems or DEMS. This system is specially designed for the police departments and other law enforcement agencies with a purpose of aiding such personal with strong evidence regarding the concerned situation. It makes it very easy to go through the evidence and this program can share the evidence throughout the department, and so it enhances the coordination and collaboration with other departments in other cities through a proper communication channel (Nayef Alghais, 2018).
After all, we have discussed the several aspects of the smart city which relates to smart technologies which are inducted into different applications and making those smart applications. We also see that how it has revolutionized the world by providing more flexibility, reliability, and comfort to the people. It has opened a new path for future developments which will be able to cater the future problems with effective solutions (Shah Manan Sureshchandra, 2016).
The smart city project also made transportation sector easy and flexible. It has integrated the human interaction with the transport vehicles with a factor of rapid response time and reduced cost of the journey. The similar case can be called for monitoring the traffic networking system in which sensors on board the area record new incidents or events which relays the information to the departments about the situation. The authorities can make use of highly integrated 3D maps to access the situation with ease and so the countermeasures can be taken to prevent further escalation of the problem (Abdulrahman A. Alkandari, 2017).
The smart city also contributed to cater the health care are needs by incorporating newly shared database systems for keeping the attempts record which shared between the staff of the hospital or clinic and the patent or his/her family’s handheld devices. The main advantage is that the information is up to date and the status can be monitored regarding the health parameters. In this way, the smart technology has helped in coordination to be made between the staff and the patients (Al-Ghawi, 2016).
Lastly, we see that smart city project will be very effective in the country of Kuwait and above all the information shared will be completely transparent despite the beaching of the privacy of the people with their possessions but still, this mega project will be worthwhile in both collaboration and coordination purposes as well. Hence the benefits it will bring to the people of Kuwait will overweigh the disadvantages, and this will enhance the overall economy of the country and its education sector will be highly improved through the advanced technology and especially the poor class will be highly benefited from this project (Sarah Moser, 2014).
In regards to the discussion of the smart city project, there are two principles in which the smart city depends and those are, policies to be developed and implemented for a smart government program and the other principle is to allow the smart devices to do our work. So in this part of the discussion we will highlight the aspects of the second principle. The first aspect is the about the smart city which considers the implications of the smart city projects which are divided into subprojects. These sub-projects include traffic monitoring, cleaning of the city programs with the elimination of criminal activities, waste management programs, etc. these programs are mostly launched by the governments as it is a large scale program which can only solve by the government, and the purpose is to convert the small city into multi-dimensions city with incorporation of smart technologies to be applied to the applications (Carlos Cerezo, 2015).
Next aspect is the focus, which specifies two major abilities of the government which are agility and the proactivity. These are the things which define the focusing power of the government in launching the smart projects. So in this way, the agenda is set in accordance with the timings, and hence the programs are launched in a planned way and are finished within the prescribed deadline. We see that both ability and proactive nature of the government matters a lot and so the programs are built and run smoothly which defines the effeteness of smart city project (Center for international and regional studies, 2015).
Now we come to the selection of areas and their respective objectives. In this regard, we know that every area and every city has its aims & objectives and the nature of the projects are set according to these two things. This includes the managerial skills for implementing such programs like a smart grid where it requires effective management skills to accomplish the smart grid project. Another important thing is that population is highly emphasized because of their contribution to the wellbeing of the city which enhances in urban attractiveness (Shah Manan Sureshchandra, 2016).
Next is the openness of smart city which refers to the transparency procedures which are carried out to carry out the operations. In this aspect, the accountability of the concerted activity is equally important as compared to the transparency factor. The openness comes with the transfer of funds which are being spent on the projects along with sharing of stakeholders involved. Hence the smart programs ensure the transparency together with proper accountability procedure without any further investigation (Shah Manan Sureshchandra, 2016).
Considering the societal impact where we see that the smart city projects have a significant t impact on the culture of the people living in their respective areas. The programs which are initiated by the government properly assess and it is ensured that the concerned programs meets the culture of the people and their values as well. The main objective of these programs is to enable people to work for their personal development which will in turn work for the country and it will also help in acquiring education by learning the methodologies of the project which includes user-friendly devices. Moreover these projects also aid the community to participate in these project exercises within their culture parameters and respecting the proportion of the project (SPECTRUM.IEEE.ORG , 2015 ).
So we say that smart city plays a major role in developing the economy of the country with the addition of these aspects which are discussed above. The main aim of these projects is to provide a better living to the people by simplifying the upcoming challenges in a better way and this instills in the heart of the people to work good of the society and for well of the state. Culture, norms and the laws are respected at all costs and the onboard systems are designed according to the culture of the people which helps in preserving their values as well as the efficiency in carrying out their respective job and with this it achieves the level of satisfaction (Okeil, 2014).
Now we come to the dimensions of the smart city project which are the following. The first dimension is the technology. It refers to the infrastructure of the whole system, and it also considered as a facilitator to the people. It is a main backbone of the overall smart city project, and so through this, the overall operation depends on it. The second dimension is the management and organization which accounts for management & organization. This dimension deals with project management scenarios like the size of the project, overall organizational behavior along with project aims and objectives (Okeil, 2014).
Moreover, the third dimension is the policy of the project which deals with policies defined by the government in executing the task. This dimension also includes the contribution of the stakeholders which play a major role in undertaking the project along with the final evaluation. The fourth dimension is for governance in which it relates to the previous dimension. Governance factor is very important in choosing the projects and completing it without any additional delay (Al-Turjman, 2018).
The fifth dimension is the role of the people and the associated groups which rely on these projects. The projects are taken depending upon behavioral aspects of the overall community. The sixth dimension is for the economy of the country which is a major ingredient of the state, and it has huge implications of the overall operation of the country. The smart projects undertaken can hamper the economy of the state which rather than giving benefits, gets converted to huge losses and this can create many potential problems to the state (Nazerali, 2007).
The seventh dimension of this project is the infrastructure which is currently being developed in the city. The regulatory authorities which are responsible for the development of the subprograms put a great emphasis on the infrastructure which comprises of the facilities given to the construction workers, their proper health and living essentials are monitored constantly in order to achieve reliability and to enhance the efficiency of the associated program (Hisham Moustafa, 2012).
So the last dimension is the natural environment which considers the efforts on preserving the ecosystem by adopting the use of eco-friendly devices in which it accounts for lower power consumption and so this terminology is also inducted into other applications for energy conservation like fuel saving techniques in automobiles and with reduced emission of the harmful gases like CO2 and CO along with nitrogen which can pollute the environment. So the scope of smart city project is to employ the energy conservation methods and emphasizing the people to make use of renewable source of energy which is without any sort of emission and with reduced billing costs (Nayef Alghais, 2018).
So concluding all of the discussion in which we highlighted major aspects of the smart city project. We witness that this incredible project is aimed to provide citizens with various benefits by involving them to work for the state. It incorporates the people into these projects which have discussed and so the people actively involved in these application lines get an opportunity to learn and interpret different ideas and the development if their skills and hence increases the literacy graph of the country (Abdulrahman A. Alkandari, 2017).
Furthermore, the smart city project also aids in achieving a better GDP by giving a boost to different businesses and trade activities which enhances the economy of the country and the most important things is the provision of marketing & outsourcing the products and so new businesses can be established which in turn creates numerous job opportunities. So we see that the smart project helps in resolving the use of unemployment and provides the inner level of satisfaction (Alissa, 2009).
Lastly, we say that “everything going smart” terminology has revolutionized the world with great flexibility and with complete transparency. Smart city project has brought the idea of interaction of the respective governments with the public due to its advanced collaboration nature of implementing a project and so this direct collaboration & coordination has brought governments, stakeholders and the public closer together to achieve their respective tasks (Nayef Alghais, 2018).
In this final chapter, we will discuss the recommendations regarding prospects and the conclusion of what we have emphasized in the previous chapters. These are very crucial elements which define the overall scope of the project, and it also makes the reader understand the principles and the concepts in a very short time. So starting from the recommendations which will define the additions to be made which will cater for the future needs.
After evaluating the important aspects of the smart city project, we see that for future needs there some additions that must be implemented to make this project more flexible and efficient. So we start highlighting the schemes to be implemented, and with this, we start from the traffic management system. In regards to the conditions of Kuwait, we see that implementing the TMS system which is basically the intelligent systems based on smart technologies and this will aid the authorities in resolving the traffic issues like traffic congestion due to smart sort of accident or any other related issues.
Making use of the high range ultrasonic sensors to relay the information regarding the status of the traffic will be very helpful for the local traffic authorities in resolving the issues, and the response will be more rapid and robust. Similarly, this technology can also resolve the issues for the parking systems like the onboard system can monitor the number of cars parked at one side and so it can indicate incoming drivers to park on the other side if parking is vacant. This information about the parking will be shared through the sensors placed on each parking and in this way the main system gets the status of the overall parking lot and so it can indicate the drivers to park their cars on the vacant places. This smart parking system will be very efficient and would provide the high level of satisfaction for the drivers.
Moving on to the next segment which is the healthcare industry. Here more advanced smart systems can be established in order to make the medical nits more efficient and flexible. The highly advanced database management system can be implemented especially in rural hospitals and clinics. The developed system can help these institutions to track the patient’s record along with monitoring procedures in case of a long-term treatment. This will be very beneficial for the staff (nurses and doctors) to check the patient’s health, and so further procedures can be implemented, in this way the medical intuitions can be revolutionized.
Moreover, the smart city’s main project also deals with government functionaries in which variables can be made to make it more efficient and effective in their functions. The conversion to smart scale is being done by shifting from conventional operations to the e&m-government platform. Much of the contribution is made by the government officials itself and the part contribution is done by the stakeholders involved in this process (Sotiris Zygiaris, 2011).
These two principles in this regard which are coordination of government employees, employers, IT specialists along business analyst and lawyers. The second principle is the collaboration of main government units and its corporate sectors. So with the adoption of e-government and m-government systems, we see that it will bring a huge change in the functionality of the Kuwaiti government in defining and implanting the laws.
Another significant program in this smart city project are the smart grid implementation which is a very revolutionary project I and its plays a major role in conserving the energy due to its effect and flexible infrastructure. The main idea is to make our things to do work on their own in a smart way according to our requirements. Smart grid project includes the idea of combining all types of power generating sources whether it is from fossil fuels which are basically from oil and gas reserves and similarly smart grid also accounts for a renewable source of energy. The renewable sources of energy include the solar power generation, wind power generation and hydropower generation. These are the main sources through which we can make maximum use of the energy.
The situation in Kuwait is such we all know that this country is heavily dependent on oil and gas reserves which are getting depleted and so the pressure is being upon the government to look for other sources of energy in order to satisfy the country’s future needs and requirements. So the only option available to Kuwait is the induction of renewable sources of energy and the network of these sources should be proposed and this will be directly interlinked need to the main utility hub for supervising the power generation and in this regard consumer side is very important. The emphasis should be made for the provision of installing renewable sources on the consumer homes which can generate their own electricity.
The generated energy from the consumer side would allow the excess electricity to be transformed to the grid which will provide satisfaction on utilizing the power to both the utility company and the consumer as well and so the billing cost of the electricity will be far less. In contrast to this smart grid program there is another subprogram which is basically a part of the smart grid and that is smart meters. Smart meters are essential in providing the proper estimation of the overall usage of the electricity.
Moreover, they monitor the power supplied to the consumer and how much power is being supplied out to the grid. These are essential tools in terms of usage and billing information. The main difference comes between the conventional meters and the smart meter is that smart meters unlike conventional meters are able to reverse itself in case of excessive power generated on the consumer side which can be made to flow in reverse direction to the grid.
On the other hand, if we talk about the sewer system in which smart technology can make them these more reliable without any problems in terms of blockage. We normally see that when the sewer pipes are blocked then the whole concerned area is blocked and hence it creates various problems. This problem which is very common especially in Kuwait. In this case, smart system can help to counter the problem by making use of the water level sensors along with ultrasonic sensors which are placed on the underneath the manhole lid and so when the water level sensors detects the incoming water then the information between the sensors is relayed to the main controller which then signals the actuator connected to the lid to open the valve.
Furthermore, this opening of the valve will be directly proportional to the amount of incoming wastewater. So in this way incorporating the use of sensors along with the microcontroller the sewer system can be made smart which can eliminate the water flooding on the road which creates additional problems for the public. This effort must be implemented in every major street to improve the drainage problems.
Now comes to the smart waste management system which caters to the waste collecting procedures which can be made smart in terms of collecting and disposing of the waste without polluting the environment. The use of sensors along with advanced heating systems can solve this matter. In Kuwait this process is very easy in which it employs waste to be collected from all parts of the city which is then transported to the remote site where the waste management plant is situated (Adams, 2015).
The collected waste is retrieved by the system and the controller through the relaying information regarding the waste products from the sensors will allow the heater to heat the waste up to higher temperatures. The toxic fumes produced by the heated waste will be filtered out and so the environment around will be free from all sorts of pollution and the ecosystem will be balanced in this case. Hence this management system will be very much effective in contributing towards the green environment. In this way proper recycling of the waste materials is ensured.
Another application of this smart city project which must be implemented is smart criminal investigation systems. As we have discussed in the previous chapters that through the use of onboard sensors the criminals can be traced out by the local police in catching the criminals. The system in Kuwait can be designed by inducing a proper communication system in which the individual can major use of an app to report the incident to the police and with the help of onboard cameras with ultrasonic sensors can help in finding the evidence related the incident. The cameras installed in the city can be very helpful in reaching the desired destination. In this way the criminals can be captured and evidence found can be shared throughout the department and so further actions can be implemented swiftly.
In regards to the environmental protection, there are several schemes which can be implemented and one of the schemes is the cleanliness of the city through a mobile app. This system can bring positivity in Kuwait in which a user the reports the suspicious activity to the concerned authority and so the rapid response is made and in this way the user can keep an eye on the pending task. This scheme is much suitable for cleaning the city by reporting the incidents and getting the work done. The main benefit of this program is to bring the local bodies of the government and the public to one platform to achieve the required goal. This program also promotes peace, harmony and the collaboration of two main assets of the country.
Next is the provision of using the bicycles throughout the city which can be expanded to the countrywide level. The use of bicycles is of great significance and it comes with various benefits. Such benefits include no emission or pollution in terms of noise or air pollution. Similarly it also includes the factor of exercises which is good for health and the other things is the layout of the program is such that there is no such kind of fee or any other charges for the use of bicycles. The riders can pick their bikes and use on their own for a whole day and finally they can return the bicycles to any station. This program has gone very successful in many countries. The main purpose of this program is to promote green energy in order to make our atmosphere clean and most importantly to conserve the energy as much as we can.
So these are the recommendations and according to many experts, this smart city project will make Kuwait greener and healthier in terms of economic, geographic and political health. Induction of these automation techniques would enhance the efficiency of carrying out a task with very little effort. This would also enhance the craftsmanship of the Kuwaiti people and the education sector of the country will be highly benefitted.
In the field of education, the introduction of digital methods to teach the students would enhance the interests and attractive for the students to acquire knowledge. With this technique the literacy of the country can be lifted to new heights. Another important factor is the role of the governments and the stakeholders which are involved in this mission and their objectives it selects a right project at the right time and location. This is the planning strategy that must be made at a priority level.
Finally, we say that the considerations on testing the project should be done must before implanting the actual project. Various simulations must be made in order to analyze the process on the scenario when the project is completed what would be the implications good or bad. Hence proper planning strategy, analysis and then finally the issue of picking and starting up the project decisions must be unanimously agreed at all conditions. All queries and other doubts must be cleared before taking this step. The public reaction must be emphasized as a feedback source which would help the government officials to make changes in the project if needed. So implementing all these things this mega project would prove to be fruitful in the coming future.
Coming to the conclusion of this report and after we have discussed the key factors, its benefits and the limitations as well. We also highlighted the core aspects of the smart city and what it actually defines. At last we discussed the recommendations to be made for a proper implementation aster observing the existing conditions of the country Kuwait and so the government had to take a project which called smart city project.
We discussed the smart city in terms of many factors and those factors include community mobilization, and the purpose is to enable the community to be involved in these projects for the devilment of the city and the country. Different were implemented in different part of the world which is based on public participation. The participation of a public as a community to make use of bicycles for promotion greener environment with the cleaning of the city programs from such silly activities for the promotion of peace and harmony.
Next is the emergence of community-based information center which relies on the community to report any sort of incidents to the authorities and councils for action to be taken regarding the concerted activity. Other projects of smart city scheme were the water, sanitation with the factor of air pollution to prevent environment to be damaged. Through the application of smart devices to counter the waste problem by disposing and recycling the waste products without any pollution factor and similarly the smart technology to be introduced in resolving the water sanitation problem which refers to the drainage systems.
Health development was one of the major ingredients of the smart city project which caters for health activities in which database management systems were defined which were linked to the doctor’s information systems to check the status of the patient’s record which makes it easy for the doctor to manage and diagnose the patients. Similar to the health sector is the education sector which employs the use of devices to enhance the student’s ability to acquire knowledge with the help of high detailed animations of the respective subject which will bring attraction of the new things to be learned and enhances interests of the students. It can also provide easiness to define the students & teachers records in a more flexible way.
Moreover, the core objective of this project is the coordination, collaboration and the partnership skills which need to be emphasized. These principles apply to all of the departments which we have defined and without these three things of the project cannot be accomplished if one of three things is missed out. The main idea behind this project is to train people for future challenges so that we would be able to have better future with multiple options to handle the challenges and problems effectively.
In the end, we witness that smart city project teaches many skills to in order to achieve our goals and aims despite various benefits it gives as a solution to our existing problems. It teaches coordination, partnership and the collaboration of two or more groups. It also brings the government and the public close together which adds to the unity factor. For a country like Kuwait and other countries, the introduction of smart city will eliminate many potential problems. It would be able to contribute for the good of the country, and we hope that it would play a major role in eliminating poverty and its associated problems in the replacement of health education and provision of good infrastructure to the people. Many experts believe that the whole world is linked together in a more advanced way and their problems would be solved collectively which may give rise to long-term prosperity and peace to the nations around the globe.
Abdulrahman A. Alkandari, I. F. A. M. a., 2017. TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BASED ON WSN IN KUWAIT: AN INITIAL DESIGN. International Islamic University Malaysia.
Abdulrahman Alkandari, I. A., 2012. Designing a Smart City in Kuwait: an Initial Study. Computer Science Department, KICT, International Islamic University of Malaysia, pp. 116-126.
Abu-Ayyash, A.-Y. D., 1981. Planning Development Towns in Kuwait. Geo Journal, pp. 251-260.
Adams, D. C., 2015. Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on eGovernment 2015: ECEG 2015. s.l.:Academic Conferences Limited.
Adnan-al-nazi, O. K., 2010. Soar conscious house design in Kuwait. Kuwait J. Sci, pp. 59-72.
Alberto Leon-Garcia, R. L. D. H. D. S. V. K. P. W. D. C. D. Š. J. G. K. N., 2016. Smart City 360°: First EAI International Summit, Smart City 360°, Bratislava, Slovakia and Toronto, Canada, October 13-16, 2015. Revised Selected Papers. s.l.:Springer.
Al-Ghawi, D. A., 2016. Smart Cities… Healthy Cities. [Online]
Available at: http://www.kuwaithealthycities.com/speakers/dr-abeer-al-ghawi_smarter.pdf
Alissa, R., 2009. Modernizing Kuwait: Nation-building and Unplanned Spatial Practices. Berkeley Planning Journal, 22(1), pp. 1047-5192.
Al-Turjman, F., 2018. MobileCouriers’selectionfortheSmart-gridinSmart-cities’ PervasiveSensing. Elsevier.
Campbell, T., 2013. Beyond Smart Cities: How Cities Network, Learn and Innovate. s.l.:Routledge.
Carlos Cerezo, J. S. C. R. A. A.-M., 2015. THREE METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZING BUILDING ARCHETYPE IN URBAN ENERGY SIMULATION. A CASE STUDY IN KUWAIT CITY. 14th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Hyderabad, India.
Center for international and regional studies, 2015. Gateways to the World: Port Cities in the Gulf. School of foreign service in Qatar: Center for international and regional studies.
Chiara Certomà, M. D. L. P. F. R., 2017. Citizen Empowerment and Innovation in the Data-Rich City. s.l.:Springer.
Committee, G. B. P. H. o. C. T., 2012. Plug-in Vehicles, Plugged in Policy?: Fourth Report of Session 2012-13, Volume 1. s.l.:The Stationery Office.
David Publishing Company, 2014. Economics World. David Publishing Company.
Deakin, M., 2013. Smart Cities: Governing, Modelling and Analysing the Transition. s.l.:Routledge.
Dr. M. Newlin Rajkumar, P. A. D. V. V. K., 2017. Smart Garbage Collection Monitoring Systems. nternational Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science, Engineering and Information, 2(1).
Efthimios Tambouris, M. J. H. J. S. M. A. W. M. G. B. K. I. L. P. P., 2015. Electronic Government. 14th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference.
- Colombo, P. L. G. M., 2016 . INPUT 2016. 9th International Conference on Innovation in Urban and Regional Planning.
Granath, M., 2016. The Smart City – how smart can ’IT’ be?:: Discourses on digitalisation in policy and planning of urban development. s.l.:Linköping University Electronic Press.
Hisham Moustafa, H. A. T. G., 2012. Sustainable Cities Possible or Impossible: A Critical Review. Susutainable Architecture and Urban Development, pp. 447-469.
Jeena, Z. M., 2017 . INSIGHTS INTO THE INCIPIENT SMART CITIES PHENOMENA IN INDIA. Georgia Institute of Technology, School of City and Regional Planning .
McQueen, B., 2017. Big Data Analytics for Connected Vehicles and Smart Cities. s.l.:Artech House.
Menniti, D., 2017 . Solar Energy and PV Systems in Smart Cities. International Journal of Photoenergy.
Meziani, R., 2016 . Smart Data for Smart Government – a Show Case from Abu Dhabi Distribution Company. REAL CORP 2016 Proceedings/Tagungsband.
Nayef Alghais, D. P., 2017. Modelling future impacts of urban development in Kuwait with the use of ABM and GIS. wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/tgis.
Nayef Alghais, D. P., 2018. Projection for new city future scenarios – A case study for Kuwait. Elsevier.
Nazerali, N. A., 2007. Sustainable Water Resources Development in Kuwait: an integrated approach with competitive analysis of the case of Singapore. Massachusetts Insitute of Technology.
Okeil, A., 2014. Smart, Sustainable and Healthy Cities. 2014 The first international conference of the CIB Middle East & North Africa Research Network.
Renata Paola Dameri, C. R.-S., 2014. Smart City: How to Create Public and Economic Value with High Technology in Urban Space. s.l.:Springer.
Review, S. a. D. C. A. S. L., 2014. Annalisa Cocchia. Springer International Publishing Switzerland .
Rodríguez-Bolíva, M. P., 2015. Transforming City Governments for Successful Smart Cities. s.l.:Springer.
Sarah Moser, M. S. M. H. A., 2014. King Abdullah Economic City: Engineering Saudi Arabias post-oil future. Elsevier, pp. 71-80.
Shah Manan Sureshchandra, J. J. B. J. R. P., 2016. Review on Identificationof Success factors fordesigning of smart cities. International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering .
Sotiris Zygiaris, M. A., 2011. URBAN PLANNING FOR SMART CITIES: POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION ECOSYSTEMS ACROSS THE BLACK. Urban and Regional Innovation Research Unit, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki .
SPECTRUM.IEEE.ORG , 2015 . Smart Sewers for Public Health. SPECTRUM.IEEE.ORG .
Stan Geertman, J. F. J. R. G. J. S., 2015. Planning Support Systems and Smart Cities. s.l.:Springer.
SudattaKar, M. P. G., 2017. Telecommunication infrastructure: Using Statistical analysis to identify significant factors and to design policies for indian smart cities. International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research, 4(8).